PhotoMedicine, often termed photo (light) therapy, is a paradigm shift in modern medicine for in addition to drugs and surgery doctors around the world are now using photo therapy to help the body's cells to heal themselves.

I have created a detailed GLOSSARY of the specialist terms which are used in the area of Phototherapy and you can access this GLOSSARY BY FOLLOWING THIS LINK to the dedicated page here on the website.

In addition to research papers you can also browse through the Recommended Books listing as well as Key Journals.

Please select from the listing title below to read individual research listings.

Colour Therapy - as well as the resources here on my website you can also learn even more by following this link to Theresa Sundts books about BIOPTRON Colour Therapy as well as a whole host of other relevant training programmes and resources:








Laser Mechanisms

Dental Conditions
Acute Pain
Bone Healing
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

Pain Relief

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

Bioptron Light Therapy Systems References

(Please click the pdf icon for the link to the relevant research paper)


Melanoma with second myxoid stromal changes after personally applied prolonged phototherapy.
M Ulamec Am J Deramtopathol. Vol 30.

Melanoma with second myxoid stromal changes after personally applied prolonged phototherapy.
M Ulamec
2009 - Image File

Phototherapy in the treatment of acne vulgaris - What is it Its Role?
A. Charakida et. al. 2004 Am J Clin Dermatol.

The action of visible polarized light on skin diseases.
E.Aronis et. al. 18th International Congress of Dermatology, new York, 1992.

Pain treatment

Anti-inflammatory effect of last therapy in rheumatoid arthritis.
C. Fulga.Rev. Rotum. Med. Int. 1998

Efficacy of polarized light, polychromatic, non-coherent light in the treatment of chronic musuloskeletal neck and shoulder neck and shoulder pain.
M. F Ballyzek. St. Petersburg Clinical Hospital, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Comparison Between Low Level Laser Therapy and visible Incoherent Polarized Light in the Treatment of Later Epicondylitis - tennis Elbow: A Pilot Clinical Study on 20 Patients.
Z. Simunovic. ASLMS Annual Meeting, New Orleans, USA 2001

The Use of Polychromatic Light BIOPTRON in Physiotherapy

The Role of Physical Therapy and Physical Modalities in Management

Lateral epicondylitis tennis elbow

The use of Polarized Polychromatic Non-coherent Light as Therapy for Acute Tennis Elbow/Lateral Epicondylagia: A Pilot Study
D.Stasinopolulos. 2005. PhotoMedicine and laser Surgery.

Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome with Polarized Polychromatic Noncoherent Light (Bioptron Light): A Preliminary, Prospective, Open Clinical Trial.
D.Stasinopolulos.2005. PhotoMedicine and laser Surgery.

The role of physical therapy and physical modalities in pain management.
Marian A. Minor Pain management In The Rheumatic Diseases. 1999.

The use of polychromatic polarized light BIOPTRON in Physiotherapy.
Dr. M. Antonic. Academy of Military Medicine. Clinic for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.


Postoperative rehabilitation in patients with peripheral nerve lesions.

I. Petronic

Summary: Injuries of extremities can be followed by various neuromuscular complications. Injury of peripheral nerves directly depend on the topographic locatization of injury (fractures, cuts, contusions). The neuromuscular complications were diagnosed and under follow-up, based on clinical, x-ray, neurologic and neurophysiological findings. After surgeries, we continue to apply physical treatment and rehabilitation. The aim of the paper was to assess the significance of proper timing for surgery and adequate postoperative rehabilitation, as well as treatment results, depending on the extent of peripheral nerve injury. Material and methods: Based on the study conducted in the period from 2000-2002, most surgeries were done on the ulnar nerve (4 pts), median nerve (4 pts), radial nerve (3 pts), peroneal nerve (2 pts) and plexus brachialis (3 pts). Paresis and peripheral nerve paralysis, associated with sensibility disorders, predominated in clinical features.

In most patients surgery was done during the first 3 - 6 months after injury. In earl postoperative rehabilitation in patients with peripheral treatment positioning of the extremities with electrotherapy were most often used in early post operative treatment along with Bioptron and doses kinesitherapy. Depending on the neurophysiological findings, in later treatment stages we included electrostimulation, thermotherapy, kinesitherapy and working therapy, with the necessary application of static and dynamic orthoses.

Study results showed that the success of treatment depended on the extent of injury i.e. whether suture of liberalization of the nerve had been done, on the adequate timing of surgery, as well as on the adequate timing and application of physical therapy and rehabilitation. More rapid and functional recovery was achieved if the interval between injury and surgery was shorter, as well as physical therapy was applied early. Based on the analysis of the achieved results, we concluded that peripheral nerve lesions after fractures and contusions had better prognosis in relation to isolated sections of peripheral nerves, having in mind that these were mostly conductive block transfer and nerve stretching lesion, which do no leave sequences.

Pub Med Pediatrics


Bright Light therapy of Subsyndromal SAD in the Workplace. Morning v.s. Afternoon Exposure.
D.H.Avery et. al. 2001. Acta Psychiatr Scand

Morning v.s. Evening Light Treatment of Patients with Winter Depression. A. Lewy Arch Gen Psychiatry 1998.

Bright Light Improves Vitality and Alleviates Distress in Healthy People. T Partonen Journal of Affective Disorder. 2000

A Controlled trial of Timed Bright Light and Negative Air Ionization for Treatment of Winter Depression. M.Terman et. al., Arch Gen Psychiatry 1998

Bright Light Treatment of Winter Depression - A Placebo-Controlled Trial. C.Eastman et al. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1998.


The effects of polarized light therapy in pressure ulcer healing. A. Durovic Vojnosanit Pregl. 2008

A conservative approach for deep dermal burn wounds using polarised-light therapy. S. Monstrey Et. Al. British Journal of Plastic Surgery 2002

The Use of Polarized Light in Aesthetic Surgery. M. Colic Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 2004

The Use of Polarized Light in Aesthetic Surgery

The Effect of Polarized Light on Wound Healing. S. Monstrey European Journal of Plastic Surgery. 2000

The Effect of Polarized Light on Wound healing. S. Monstrey et. al European Journal of Plastic Surgery 2002

Effect of polarized light in the healing process of Pressure Ulcers. P Iordanou International Journal of Nursing Practice 2002

Macrophage Responsiveness to Light Therapy. S. Young Laser Surgery and Medicine 1989

A conservative Approach for Deep Dermal Burn Wounds Using Polarised-light therapy. S. Monstrey British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 2002

Effects of PILER light therapy on Wound Healing in Patients After Operation of Stomach Carcinoma. A. Simic et al. 2001 3rd international Gastric Cancer Congress. Soul. 1999.

Light Therapy and Thoracophenolaparotomy Wound Healing in Patients Operated Due to Cardia Carcinoma. A. Simic et al., 4th International Gastric Cancer Congress New York. USA 2001

The Effect of Polarized Light on the Release of Growth factors from the U-937 Macrophage - Like Cell Line P. Bolton LLLT 1992

Effect on Wound Healing After Operation. A. Simic et al.

Promotion of Wound Healing by Irradiation with Polarized Light. A.D. Stacker. Die Medizinische Welt 1986

Treatment of Leg Ulcers with Polarized Light.

W. Stegmann. Phlebologie und Prktologie 1985


Acne Care

An action spectrum for blue and near ultraviolet inactivation of Propionibacterium acnes; with emphasis on a possible porphyrin photosensitisation.
Kjeldstad B, Jhonsson
Photochemistry-Photobiology 1986: 43(1); 67-70

Singlet oxygen (1 delta g) generation from coproporphyrin in Propionibacterium acnes on irradiation.
Arakane K, Ryu A, Hayashi C, Masunaga T, Schinmoto K, Mashiko S,
Nagano T, Hirobe M.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1996; 223 (3): 578-82.

Effect of Visible Light on Reactive Oxygen Species Production
R. Lubart,1 H. Friedmann,1 R. Lavie,1 N. Grossman,2 M. Sinyakov and S.
Department of Chemistry and Physics, Department of Life Sciences
Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel

Visible light promotes proliferation of normal skin cells
Grossman, N., Reuveni, H., Halevy, S., Lubart, R:, J. Invest.
Dermatol., 102649A (1994)

Improvement of rheologic parameters, ligand- and oxygen-binding capacity of erythrocytes of circulating blood after exposure of the body surface to visible polarized light.
K.A.Samoilova, K.D.Obolenskaya,
A.V.Vologdina, N.V.Mineeva, N.Yu.Romanenko, M.F.Balljuzek: Published:
8th Congress of European Society for Photobiology. Book of Abstracts,
P106, p.145, Granada (1999)

Pain Relief

The use of monochromatic Infrared Energy Therapy in Podiatry.
Carnegie D.
Published: Management. Nov/Dec. 2002. 129-34


Changes of cytokine content in human blood after in vivo and invi-tro exposure to visible polarized light at therapuetic dose.
K.A.Samoilova, D.I.Sokolov, K.D.Obolenskaya.
In: Abstracts. 13th International Congress on Photobiology and 28th Annual
Meeting American Society for Photobiology. San Francisco, 2000, N 327,


Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

Light suppresses melatonin secretion in humans
Lewy,A J,Wehr TA,Goodwin FK,Newsome DA,Markey SP.

A description of the syndrome and preliminary findings with light therapy
Resenthal NE,Sack DA.Gillin JC,et al.Seasonal affective disorder.
Published: Arch Gen Psych.1984;41:72-80

Canadian consensus for the treatment of seasonal affective disorder
Lam RW, Levit A (eds)..
Canadian J of Diagnosis 1998; Supplement; 2 – 15:

Lichttherapie 3. edition
Zulley J, Wirz-Justice, A (eds). Regensburg:
S.Rodner Verlag, 1999

Beginning to see the light.
Wirz-Justice A,
Commentary. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1998; 55:861-862; auch alle
Originalartikel pp 875 – 896

Seasonal Affective Disorder and Beyond: Light treatment for SAD and non SAD conditions
Lam RW (ed). Washington DC American Psychiatric Press 1998

Low Power Laser Therapy

Laser Therapy Research References

Laser therapy research is undertaken worldwide and from within a wide range of disciplines. In this section you will find references to studies organised by generic application. (For references organised by discipline see the Clinical Applications section.) You can select from:

Laser Mechanisms


Ten Lectures on Basic Science of Laser Phototherapy. Karu, T. (2007) Prima Books.

Mechanisms of Low Level Light Therapy. Hamblin, M. R. & Demidova, T. N. (2006).
Proc of SPIE Vol. 6140 (1).

Photobiological basis and clinical role of low intensity lasers in biology and medicine.
Reddy, G. (2004). J Clin Laser Med Surg 22(2):141-60

It is Time to Test Low Level Laser Therapy in Great Britain.
Moshkovska T, Mayberry J (2005). Postgrad Medical Journal, 81:436-441.

Experimental Studies

Absorption measurements of a cell monolayer relevant to phototherapy: reduction of cytochrome c oxidase under near IR radiation.
Karu, T.I., Pyatibrat, L.V., Kolyakov, S.F.and Afanasyeva, N.I. (2005b) Photochem. Photbiol. Biol. 81:98-106.

A novel mitochondrial signalling pathway activated by visible-to-near-infrared radiation.
Karu, T.I., Pyatibrat, L.V. and Afanasyeva, N.I. (2004). Photochem. Photobiol. 80, 366-372.

Photobiological modulation of cell attachmnent via cytochrome c oxidase.
Karu, T.I., Pyatibrat, L.V. and Kalendo, G.S. (2004) Photochem. Photobiol. Sci.3:211-216.

Primary and secondary mechanisms of action of visible to near-IR radiation on cells.
Karu, T. (1999) J. Photochem. Photobiol. B:Biol. 49:1-17.

Musculoskeletal Healing


The efficacy of low power lasers in tissue repair and pain control: a meta-analysis study. Enwemeka, C., Parker, J., Dowdy, S. et al (2004).. Photomedicine & Laser Surgery

Laser and Sports Medicine in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.
Junichiro Kubota M.D.Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Clinical Studies

A randomised, placebo controlled trial of low level laser therapy for activated Achilles tendonitis with microdialysis measurement of peritendinous prostaglandin E2 concentrations. Bjordal, J.M., Lopes-Martins, R.a., Iversen, V.V. (2006). British Journal of Sports Medicine 40(1):76-80.

Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has gained increasing popularity in the management of tendinopathy and arthritis. Results from in vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that inflammatory modulation is one of several possible biological mechanisms of LLLT action. Objective: To investigate in situ if LLLT has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated tendinitis of the human Achilles tendon. Subjects: Seven patients with bilateral Achilles tendinitis (14 tendons) who had aggravated symptoms produced by pain inducing activity immediately before the study. Method: Infrared (904nm wavelength) LLLT (5.4J per point, power density 20mW/cm2) and placebo LLLT (0J) were administered to both Achilles tendons in random blinded order. Results: Ultrasonography Doppler measurements at baseline showed minor inflammation through increased intratendinous blood flow in all 14 tendons and measurable resistive index in eight tendons of 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.87 to 0.95). Prostoglandin E2 concentrations were significantly reduced 75,90 and 105 minutes after active LLLT compared with concentrations before treatment (p = 0.026) and after placebo LLLT (p= 0.009). Pressure pain threshold had increased significantly (p = 0.012) after active LLLT compared with placebo LLLT: the mean difference in the change between the groups was 0.40 kg/cm2 (95% confidence interval 0.10 to 0.70). Conclusion: LLLT at a dose of 5.4J per point can reduce inflammation and pain in activated Achilles tendinitis. LLLT may therefore have potential in the management of diseases with an inflammatory component.

Photobiomodulation of Pain in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Review of Seven Laser Therapy Studies.
Naeser M A (2006). Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, 24 (2):101-110.

Low level laser treatment can reduce edema in second degree ankle sprains.
Sterioulas, A. (2004). J Clin Laser Med Surg 22(2): 125-8.

Wound healing of animal and human body sport and traffic accident injuries using low-level laser therapy treatment: a randomized clinical study of seventy-four patients with control group.
Z; Ivankovich AD; Depolo A., Simunovic (2004). Journal of Clinical Laser Medicine & Surgery: 18 (2):67-73.

Laser Therapy in the Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Evcik, D., Kavuncu, V., Cakir, T., Subasi, V., Yaman, M. (2007).Photomedicine & Laser Surgery 25 (1):34-39.

The use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the treatment of trigger points that are associated with rotator cuff tendonitis.
Al-Shenqiti, M.D. & J. Oldham (2003). SPIE Volume 5287, pp.91-101.

Treatment of medial and lateral epicondylitis – tennis and golfer’s elbow – with low level laser therapy: a multicenter double blind, placebo-controlled clinical study on 324 patients. Simunovic Z, Trobonjaca T, Trobonjaca Z (1998). Journal of Clinical Lasers in Medicine and Surgery 16 (3): 145-151.

LLLT using a Diode Laser in Successful Treatment of a Herniated Lumbar/Sacral Disc, with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Assessment: A Case Report.
Laser Therapy. Abe, T. (1989). John Wiley & Sons.

Experimental Studies

Wound healing of animal and human body sport and traffic accident injuries using low-level laser therapy treatment: a randomized clinical study of seventy-four patients with control group.
Z; Ivankovich AD; Depolo A., Simunovic (?)(2004?). Journal of Clinical Laser Medicine & Surgery: 18 (2):67-73.

Comparison and single and multiple applications of GaAIAs laser on rate medial collateral ligament repair.
Ng, G., Fung, D., Leung, M., Guo, X. (2004). Lasers in Surgery & Medicine 34(3): 285-289.

Different Power Settings of LLLT on the Repair of the Calcaneal Tendon.
Neves M A I, Pinfildi C E, Wood V T, Gobbato R C, da Silva F M, Parizotto N A, Hochman B, Ferreira L M. (2011). Photomedicine and Laser Surgery 2011 June.

Abstract: Objective:
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an 830-nm GaAlAs diode laser operating at output powers of 40, 60, 80, and 100?mW and energy density of 30?J/cm2 on the repair of partial calcaneal tendon ruptures in rats. Methods: A partial tendon rupture was induced in all animals, which were treated with laser irradiation for 5 consecutive days. Six days after injury, the injured tendons were removed and examined by polarized light microscopy. Collagen fiber organization was evaluated by birefringence measurements, and collagen content was determined by Picrosirius Red staining. Results: It was observed that the higher the output power (60–100?mW) the greater the amount of type III collagen (p<0.01). The amount of type I collagen was significantly greater (p=0.05) in the 80?mW group than in the control group (sham stimulation). A non-statistically significant improvement in the realignment of collagen fibers was observed in the irradiated groups. Conclusions: Low-level laser therapy resulted in significantly greater amounts of type III collagen (output powers of 60?mW or more) and type I collagen (output power of 80?mW), however, no significant differences between groups were found in the realignment of collagen fibers.

In Vitro Studies

The influence of IR-Laser on the proliferation of fibroblasts: An in-vitro study.
Ph.van der Veen, Y de Rop, P. Lievens ( ).

Wound Healing


The efficacy of laser therapy in wound repair: a meta-analysis of the literature.
Woodruff, L., Bounkeo, J., Brannon, W., Dawes, K. et al (2004). Photomedicine and Laser Surgery 22(3):2417.

Low intensity laser therapy in wound healing - A review with special respect to diabetic angiopathies.
Schindl, A., Schindl, M., Pernerstorfer-Schoen, H., Schindl, L. (2001). Acta Chirurgica Austriaca. 33(3):132-137.

Low-level laser therapy for diabetic foot wound healing.
Nicolette Houreld, Heidi Abrahamse (2005). The Diabetic Foot, Winter 2005.

Low-level laser outshines other modalities for wound treatment: correct dosimetry is critical.
Bryant, Rebecca (Lasers and beyond) Dermatology Times, 6/15/2004.

Clinical Studies

Phototherapy Promotes Healing of Chronic Diabetic Leg Ulcers that Failed to Respond to Other Therapies.
Minatel, D.G., Frade, M.A.C, Franca S.C. and Enwemeka, C. S. (2009). Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 41:433-441.

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) efficacy in post-operative wounds.
Herascu N; Velciu B; Calin M; Savastru D; Talianu C (2005). Photomedicine and Laser Surgery 23 (1):70-3.

Abstract: Objective: The aim of this paper was to investigate the efficacy of low-level laser radiation (LLLR) with wavelength of 904 nm on the stimulation of the healing process of postoperative aseptic wounds (early scar). Background Data: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been increasingly used to treat many disorders, including wounds. However, despite such increased clinical usage, there is still controversy regarding the efficacy of this wound treatment in curent clinical practice. Methods: LLLT has been used to treat cutting plague in the right instep and on the left foot. Both resulted from sutured wounds. The clinical evaluation by semiquantitative methods is presented. Results: Clinical evaluation showed that the healing process of these postoperatively treated wounds has occurred and that the functional recovery of the patients (i.e., return to their ordinary life) was faster than without treatment. Conclusion: LLLR with wavelength of 904 nm to stimulate postoperative aseptic wounds (early scar) is efficient in both cases of cutting plague.

The comparison of effects between pulsed and CW lasers on wound-healing.
Al-Watban, F. & Zhang, X. (2004). J Clin Laser Med Surg 22(1):15-8.

Wound healing of animal and human body sport and traffic accident injuries using low-level laser therapy treatment: a randomized clinical study of seventy-four patients with control group.
Z; Ivankovich AD; Depolo A., Simunovic (2004). Journal of Clinical Laser Medicine & Surgery: 18 (2):67-73.

Effect of low intensity helium-neon (He-Ne) laser irradiation on diabetic wound healing dynamics.
Maiya GA; Kumar P; Rao L ( ). Photomedicine and Laser Surgery 23 (2):187-90

A case report of low intensity laser therapy (LILT) in the management of venous ulceration: potential effects of wound debridement upon efficacy.
Lagan-K-M, Mc-Donough-S-M, Clements-B-A, Baxter-G-D (2000). Journal of Clinical Laser Medicine & Surgery 18 (1): 15-22.

Low-Level Laser Therapy Facilitates Superficial Wound Healing in Humans: A Triple-Blind, Sham-Controlled Study.
Hopkins, J.T., McLoda, T.A., Seegmiller, J.G. and Baxter, G.D. (2004). Journal of Athletic Training 2004:39(3):223-229.

Double blind, randomised, placebo controlled low level laser therapy study in patients with primary Raynaud’s phenomenon.
Hirschl, M., Katzenschlager, R., Ammer, K., Melnizky, P. et al (2002). VASA 31(2):91-4.

Low level laser treatment of primary and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon.
Al Awami M, Schillinger M, Gschwandtner M E et al (2001). VASA 30 (4): 281-284.

Low level laser therapy in primary Raynaud’s phenomenon.
Hirschl, M., Katzenschlager, R., Francesconi, C., Kundi, M. (2004). Journal of Rheumatology 31(12):2408-12.

Low level laser irradiation attenuates production of reactive oxygen species by human neutrophils.
Fugimaki, Y., Shimoyama, T., Liu, Q. et al (2003).J Clin Laser Med Surg 21 (3): 165-70.

The use of low intensity laser therapy (LILT) for the treatment of open wounds in psychogeriatric patients: A pilot study.
Verdote-Robertson-R, Munchua-M-M, Reddon-J-R (2000).Physical and Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics 18(2):1-19.

Therapeutic laser in treatment of trophic ulcers (TU) of venous aetiology. V. M. Lisienko, O. J. Menjajlenko ( ). The Ural State Medical Academy.

US Food & Drug Administration: results from a preliminary wound healing trial.
Waynant, R., (1998). Notes from a presentation at The 2nd Congress of The world Assoc. for Laser Therapy, Kansas, MO, USA, Sept. 2.5 1998.

Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) as an Effective Therapeutic Modality for Delayed Wound Healing.
Hawkins, D., Houreld, N., & Abrahamse, H. ( ).Faculty of Health, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, 2028, South Africa

Evaluation of low-level-laser irradiation in the healing of diabetic foot wounds: a randomized controlled trial.
Djavid, G. E. (2006 ). Iranian Ctr. for Medical Laser (Iran) and Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences (Iran) [6140-21]

Low Level Laser Therapy in Primary Raynaud's Phenomenon — Results of a Placebo Controlled, Double Blind Intervention Study.
Mirko Hirschl, Reinhold Katzenschlager, Claudia Francesconi, And Michael Kundi (2004).From the Department of Angiology, Hanusch Hospital, Vienna; and the Institute of Environmental Health, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Low level laser therapy for treatment of primary and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon. Minar E. Department of Medical Angiology, University of Vienna, Austria.

Experimental Studies

A histologic assessment of the influence of low intensity laser therapy on wound healing in steroid treated animals.
Pessoa, E., Melhado, R., Theodoro, L., Garcia, V. (2004).Photomedicine & Laser Surgery 22(3):199-203.

Wound healing of animal and human body sport and traffic accident injuries using low-level laser therapy treatment: a randomized clinical study of seventy-four patients with control group.
Z; Ivankovich AD; Depolo A., Simunovic (2004). Journal of Clinical Laser Medicine & Surgery: 18 (2):67-73.

Effect of a diode laser on wound healing by using diabetic and nondiabetic mice.
Kawalec, J., Hetherington, J., Pfennigwerth, C. et al (2004). Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery 43.

Temperature-controlled 830-nm low-level laser therapy of experimental pressure ulcers.
Lanzafame RJ; Stadler I; Coleman J; Haerum B; Oskoui P; Whittaker M; Zhang RY (2004)Photomedicine and Laser Surgery 22 (6): 483-8.

Dose and wavelength of laser light have influence on the repair of cutaneous wounds.
Mendez TM; Pinheiro AL; Pacheco MT; Nascimento PM; Ramalho LM (2004) Journal of Clinical Laser Medicine & Surgery 22 (1): 19-25.

Evaluation of the use of low level laser and photosensitizer drugs in healing.
Silva, J., Lacava, Z., Kuckelhaus, S., Silva, L. et al (2004). Lasers in Surgery & Medicine 34(5): 451-7.

Promotion of angiogenesis by low energy laser irradiation.
Mirsky, N., Krispel, Y., Shoshany,
Y., Maltz, L., Oron, U. (2002). Antioxid Redox Signal 4(5):785-790.

Low-level laser therapy decreases local effects induced by myotoxins isolated from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom.
Barbosa A M, Villaverde A B, Guimarães-Sousa L I, Soares A M, Zamuner S F, Cogo J C, Zamuner S R (2010). Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 16 (3).

Abstract: The prominent myotoxic effects induced by Bothrops jararacussu crude venom are due, in part, to its polycationic myotoxins, BthTX-I and BthTX-II. Both myotoxins have a phospholipase A2 structure: BthTX-II is an active enzyme Asp-49 PLA2, while BthTX-I is a Lys-49 PLA2 devoid of enzymatic activity. In this study, the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT), 685 nm laser at a dose of 4.2 J/cm2 on edema formation, leukocyte influx and myonecrosis caused by BthTX-I and BthTX-II, isolated from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom, was analyzed. BthTX-I and BthTX-II caused a significant edema formation, a prominent leukocyte infiltrate composed predominantly by neutrophils and myonecrosis in envenomed gastrocnemius muscle. LLLT significantly reduced the edema formation, neutrophil accumulation and myonecrosis induced by both myotoxins 24 hours after the injection. LLLT reduced the myonecrosis caused by BthTX-I and BthTX-II, respectively, by 60 and 43%; the edema formation, by 41 and 60.7%; and the leukocyte influx, by 57.5 and 51.6%. In conclusion, LLLT significantly reduced the effect of these snake toxins on the inflammatory response and myonecrosis. These results suggest that LLLT should be considered a potential therapeutic approach for treatment of local effects of Bothrops species venom.

In Vitro Studies

The effect of 880nm low level laser energy on human fibroblast cell numbers: a possible role in hypertrophic wound healing.
Webb, C. & Dyson, M. (2003). Journal of Photochemistry & Photobiology B(?)Biol (or Vol?) 70: 39-44.

Effects of low level laser therapy of 810nm upon in vitro growth of bacteria.
Nussbaum, E., Lilge, L. & Mazzulli, T. (2003).J Clin Laser Med Surg 21(5): 283-90.

Influence of low level laser therapy on wound healing and its biological action upon myofibroblasts.
Medrado, A., Pugliese, L., Reis, S., Andrade, Z. (2003).. Lasers in Surgery & Medicine 32(3): 239-44.

830-nm irradiation increases the wound tensile strength in a diabetic murine model.
Stadler I, Lanzafame R J, Evans R, et al (2001). Lasers in Surgery and Medicine. 28 (3): 220-226.
Stimulatory effect of 660 nm low level laser energy on hypertrophic scar-derived fibroblasts: possible mechanisms for increase in cell counts.
Webb C, Dyson M, Lewis WH. (1998).Lasers Surg Med. 22(5):294-301.

The influence of IR-Laser on the proliferation of fibroblasts: An in-vitro study.
Ph.van der Veen, Y de Rop, P. Lievens ( ).

Wound Healing Process: Influence Of LLLT On The Proliferation Of Fibroblasts And On The Lymphatic Regeneration.
Lievens P, van der Veen P . Department of Rehabilitation Research Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium

Skin and Scarring

Clinical Studies

Acne Care

An action spectrum for blue and near ultraviolet inactivation of Propionibacterium acnes; with emphasis on a possible porphyrin photosensitisation.
Kjeldstad B, Jhonsson
Photochemistry-Photobiology 1986: 43(1); 67-70

Singlet oxygen (1 delta g) generation from coproporphyrin in Propionibacterium acnes on irradiation.
Arakane K, Ryu A, Hayashi C, Masunaga T, Schinmoto K, Mashiko S,
Nagano T, Hirobe M.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1996; 223 (3): 578-82.

Effect of Visible Light on Reactive Oxygen Species Production
R. Lubart,1 H. Friedmann,1 R. Lavie,1 N. Grossman,2 M. Sinyakov and S.
Department of Chemistry and Physics, Department of Life Sciences
Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel

Visible light promotes proliferation of normal skin cells
Grossman, N., Reuveni, H., Halevy, S., Lubart, R:, J. Invest.
Dermatol., 102649A (1994)

Improvement of rheologic parameters, ligand- and oxygen-binding capacity of erythrocytes of circulating blood after exposure of the body surface to visible polarized light.
K.A.Samoilova, K.D.Obolenskaya,
A.V.Vologdina, N.V.Mineeva, N.Yu.Romanenko, M.F.Balljuzek: Published:
8th Congress of European Society for Photobiology. Book of Abstracts,
P106, p.145, Granada (1999)

LLLT – a conservative approach to the burn scar? Gaida, K., Koller, R., Isler, C. et al (2004). Burns 30(4):362-367.

Abstract: Burn Scars are known to be difficult to treat because of their tendency to worsen with hypertrophy and contracture. Various experimental and clinical efforts have been made to alleviate their effects but the problem has not been solved. Since patients keep asking for Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) and believe in its effectiviness on burn scars, and since former studies show contradictory results of the influence of LLLT on wound healing, this prospective study was designed to objectify the effects of LLLT on burn scars. Nineteen patients with 19 burn scars were treated with a 400mW 670nm Softlaser twice a week over 8 weeks. In each patient a control area was defined, that was not irradiated. Parameters assessed were the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) for macroscopic evaluation and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pruritus and pain. Photographical and clinical assessments were recorded in all the patients. Seventeen out of 19 scars an improvement after treatment. The average rating on the VSS decreased from 7.10+/-2.13 to 4.68+/-2.05 points in the treated areas, whereas teh VSS in the control areas decreased from 6.10+/-2.86 to 5.88+/-2.72. A correlation between scar dutation and improvement through LLLT could be found. No negative effects of LLLT were reported. The present study shows that the 400mW 670nm softlaser has a positive, yet sometimes limited effect on burn scars concerning macroscopic appearance, pruritus and pain.

Effects of low-intensity polarized visible laser radiation on skin burns: a light microscopy study. Ribeiro, M.S., Da Silva, F. Dde., De Araujo, C.E., De Oliveira, S.F., Pelegrini, C.M., Zorn, T.M., and Zezell, D.M. (2004). J Clin Laser Med Surg 22:59-66.

The effect of adding low energy laser irradiation after skin resurfacing in lowering complication. Fereydson, E., Samieh, M. (2002).Lasers in Surgery & Medicine: Abstract 242.

Low-Level Laser Therapy Facilitates Superficial Wound Healing in Humans: A Triple-Blind, Sham-Controlled Study. Hopkins, J.T., McLoda, T.A., Seegmiller, J.G. and Baxter, G.D. (2004). Journal of Athletic Training 2004:39(3):223-229.

Clinical Effect of Diode Laser to Improve Fair Take of the Grafted Skin. Fujino T, Kiyoizumi T, Kubota J and Ohshiro T(1986) Japan Keio Journal of Medicine 35:28-35.

Stimulatory effect of 660 nm low level laser energy on hypertrophic scar-derived fibroblasts: possible mechanisms for increase in cell counts. Webb C, Dyson M, Lewis WH (1998).Lasers Surg Med. 22(5):294-301.

Experimental Studies

Action of diode laser (830nm) on cutaneous wound healing process: biometrical and histological study in rats. Rezende, S. B. (2001).Dissertation (Professional Master's Degree "Lasers in Dentistry") - Nuclear and Energy Research Institute / School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo. Advisor: Edison Puig Maldonado, DDS, PhD, Edmir Matson, DDS, PhD
Dose and wavelength of laser light have influence on the repair of cutaneous wounds.Mendez TM; Pinheiro AL; Pacheco MT; Nascimento PM; Ramalho LM (2004?)Journal of Clinical Laser Medicine & Surgery 22 (1): 19-25.

Collagen birefringence in skin repair in response to red polarized-laser therapy. Daniela de Fátima Teixeira da Silva , Benedicto de Campos Vidal , Denise Maria Zezell , Telma Maria Tenório Zorn, Silvia Cristina Núñez and Martha Simões Ribeiro (2006). Journal of Biomedical Optics 11, Issue 2.
The influence of low-level laser therapy on biomodulation of collagen and elastic fibers. Pugliese LS; Medrado AP; Reis SR; Andrade Zde A (2003).Pesquisa Odontologica Brasileira (Brazilian Oral Research) 17 (4): 307-13

In Vitro Studies

Stimulatory effect of 660 nm low level laser energy on hypertrophic scar-derived fibroblasts: possible mechanisms for increase in cell counts.Webb C, Dyson M, Lewis WH. (1998). Lasers Surg Med. 22(5):294-301.

Laser Stimulation of Collagen Synthesis in Human Skin Fibroblast Cultures.Lam S, Abergel R P, Meeker C A, Castel J C , Dwyer R M and Uitto J (1986). Lasers in Life Sciences 1 (1):61-77.


Bone Healing


The Influence of Low-Intensity Laser Therapy on Bone Healing (2012). Ebrahimi T, Moslemi N, AR. Rokn, M. Heidari , H. Nokhbatolfoghahaie, R. Fekrazad Journal of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (Vol. 9, No. 4)

Low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) is defined to supply direct biostimulative light energy to the cells. While several studies have demonstrated that LILT has stimulating effects on bone cells and can accelerate the repair process of the bone, others reported delayed fracture healing or no effects after LILT. The aim of this article was to review the studies evaluating the biomodulation effects of LILT on bone-derived stem cells.
Materials and Methods: To access relevant articles, searching in three electronic databases including PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct was conducted until April 2012. The key words used were low-level laser, low-intensity laser, low-power laser therapy, stem cell, bone marrow stem cell, bone and osteoblast. The articles that met the eligibility criteria were included in this review of literature.
Results: Twenty-five relevant articles (13 in vitro and 12 animal studies) were included. Eleven in vitro studies showed positive results with regard to acceleration of cell proliferation and differentiation. All animal studies showed improved bone healing in sites irradiated with low-intensity laser.
Conclusion: Based on the results of the reviewed articles, low intensity laser therapy can accelerate bone healing in extraction sites, bone fracture defects and distraction osteogenesis, provided proper parameters were applied.

Effects of low power laser irradiation on bone healing in animals: a meta-analysis. Tajali S B, MacDermid J C, Houghton P, and Grewal R (2010). Journal of Orthopeadic Surgery and Research 2010, 5:1.

Purpose: The meta-analysis was performed to identify animal research defining the effects of low power laser irradiation on biomechanical indicators of bone regeneration and the impact of dosage. Method: We searched five electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane Database of Randomised Clinical Trials) for studies in the area of laser and bone healing published from 1966 to October 2008. Included studies had to investigate fracture healing in any animal model, using any type of low power laser irradiation, and use at least one quantitative biomechanical measures of bone strength. There were 880 abstracts related to the laser irradiation and bone issues (healing, surgery and assessment). Five studies met our inclusion criteria and were critically appraised by two raters independently using a structured tool designed for rating the quality of animal research studies. After full text review, two articles were deemed ineligible for meta-analysis because of the type of injury method and biomechanical variables used, leaving three studies for meta-analysis. Maximum bone tolerance force before the point of fracture during the biomechanical test, 4 weeks after bone deficiency was our main biomechanical bone properties for the Meta analysis.
Results: Studies indicate that low power laser irradiation can enhance biomechanical properties of bone during fracture healing in animal models. Maximum bone tolerance was statistically improved following low level laser irradiation (average random effect size 0.726, 95% CI 0.08 - 1.37, p 0.028). While conclusions are limited by the low number of studies, there is concordance across limited evidence that laser improves the strength of bone tissue during the healing process in animal models.

Clinical Studies

Bone repair of the periapical lesions treated or not with low intensity laser (wavelength=904 nm) Sousa G R, Ribeiro M S, Groth E B. (2002).. Laser Surg Med. Abstract Issue 2002. abstract 303.

In Vitro Studies

Human Articular Chondrocytes Cultivated in Three Dimensions: Effects of I.R. Laser Irradiation. Bassleer, C., Dachy,M., Reginster, J.Y., Gysen, P., Bassleer, R., Franchimont, P. (1985).International Congress on Laser in Medicine and Surgery, Bologna: 381-385.

Experimental Studies

Low-Energy Laser Irradiation Stimulates Bone Nodule Formation At Early Stages Of Cell Culture In Rat Calvarial Cells. Ozawa Y; Shimizu N; Kariya G; Abiko Y (1998). Bone 22 (4): 347-354.

To determine the target cells responsible for the action of laser irradiation and roles of irradiation on these cells during bone formation, we investigated the effects of low-energy laser irradiation at various cell culture stages on cellular proliferation, bone nodule formation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteocalcin gene expression, employing rat calvarial cells. Osteoblast-like cells isolated from fetal rat calvariae were irradiated once with a low-energy Ga-Al-As laser (830 nm, 500 mW) at various cell culture stages (days 1-16). Laser irradiation at early stages of culture significantly stimulated cellular proliferation, ALP activity, and osteocalcin gene expression thereafter. Furthermore, laser irradiation at earlier stages of culture significantly stimulated a greater number (1.7-fold) and larger area (3.4-fold) of bone nodules that had developed in the culture dish on day 21. However, these effects could not be found by irradiation at a later date. These results suggest that laser irradiation may play two principal roles in stimulating bone formation. One is stimulation of cellular proliferation, especially proliferation of nodule-forming cells of osteoblast lineage, and the other is stimulation of cellular differentiation, especially to committed precursors, resulting in an increase in the number of more differentiated osteoblastic cells and an increase in bone formation. Both bone-formation-stimulating roles may be exhibited by laser irradiation to immature cells only.

Low-level laser therapy improves bone repair in rats treated with anti-inflammatory drugs. Ribeiro D A and Matsumoto M A (2008). Journal of Oral Rehabiliation Vol 35: 12 925-933 Dec 08

Nowadays, selective cyclooxygenase-2 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been largely used in surgical practice for reducing oedema and pain. However, the association between these drugs and laser therapy is not known up to now. Herein, the aim of this study was to evaluate the action of anti-COX-2 selective drug (celecoxib) on bone repair associated with laser therapy. A total of 64 rats underwent surgical bone defects in their tibias, being randomly distributed into four groups: Group 1) negative control; Group 2) animals treated with celecoxib; Group 3) animals treated with low-level power laser and Group 4) animals treated with celecoxib and low-level power laser. The animals were killed after 48 h, 7, 14 and 21 days. The tibias were removed for morphological, morphometric and immunohistochemistry analysis for COX-2. Statistical significant differences (P < 0·05) were observed in the quality of bone repair and quantity of formed bone between groups at 14 days after surgery for Groups 3 and 4. COX-2 immunoreactivity was more intense in bone cells for intermediate periods evaluated in the laser-exposed groups. Taken together, such results suggest that low-level laser therapy is able to improve bone repair in the tibia of rats as a result of an up-regulation for cyclooxygenase-2 expression in bone cells.

Computerized Morphometric Assessment Of The Effect Of Low-Level Laser Therapy On Bone Repair: An Experimental Animal Study.
Silva Junior A, Pinheiro A, Oliveira M et al. (2002). Journal of Clinical Laser Medicine & Surgery, 20 (2): 83-87.

Bone Fracture Consolidates Faster With Low Power Laser.
Trelles, M.A. & Mayayo, E. (1987). Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 7 (1) 36-45.

Effect Of Low Incident Levels Of Infrared Laser Energy On The Healing Of Experimental Bone Fractures. Glinkowski W, Rowinski J (1995). Laser Therapy, 7: 67-70.

Effect of Low Level Carbon Dioxide Laser Radiation on Biochemical Metabolism of Rabbit Mandibular Bone Callus. Chen, J., & Zhou, Y. (1989).Laser Therapy. John Wiley & Sons.
Effect of low-power He- Ne laser on fracture healing in rats. David R, Nissan M, Cohen I, Soudry M.(1996). Lasers Surg Med, 19: 458-464.


Smoking Cessation

Clinical Studies

Low Level Laser For The Stimulation Of Acupoints For Smoking Cessation: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Randomised Trial And Semi-Structured Interviews. Kerr, C.M., Lowe, P.B. & Spielholz, N.I. (2008). Journal of Chinese Medicine 86: 46-51.

Abstract: Aim: to determine whether the application of laser acupoint stimulation to previously reported effective ear and body acupuncture points was successful in reducing the physical symptoms of withdrawal, so promoting a complete cessation of smoking. Design: The method used was that of a double blind, randomised controlled trial and semi-structured interviews. Adult volunteers (n=415) were recruited following a television appeal. After initial screening and application of inclusion/exclusion criteria the volunteers (n=387) were randomly allocated to either of the treatment groups A or B or C. Intervention: Three laser therapy treatments on days 1, 3 and 7 of the programme and one sham treatment on day 14 (Group A) or 4 laser treatments carried out on days 1, 3, 7 and 14 (Group B) or Group C with four sham treatments on days 1, 3, 7 and 14. Sham treatments used an inactive probe identical in appearance to active probe. Findings: Groups A and Group B participants achieved a higher rate of non smoking than Group C. Of the two groups, four treatments (Group B) was more effective than thethree treatments (Group A). The differences in the non smoking behaviors of all three groups were statistically significant. Subjective data reported a lessening of withdrawal symptoms after laser treatment. Conclusions: Laser acupoint stimulation can assist in smoking cessation by reducing the physical symptoms of withdrawal.

Laser Auriculotherapy as part of the Nicotine Detoxification Process: Evaluation of 1280 Subjects and Theoretical Considerations of a Developing Model. Marovino, T.A.(1994). American Journal of Acupuncture 22 (2) 129-135.

The Use of Laser on Acupuncture Points for Smoking Cessation. Tan, C.H., Sin, Y.M. & Huang, X.G.(1987). American Journal of Acupuncture, 15 (2) 137-141.

Plasma ACTH and ß-Endorphin Levels in Response to Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) for Myofascial Trigger Points. Laakso L, Cramond T, Richardson C & Galligan JP (1994). Laser Therapy 6: 133-142.

Biological Effects of Painless Laser Needle Acupuncture. Litscher G, Wand L, Schikora D, Rachbauer D, Schwarz G, Schopfer A, Ropele S, Huber E (2004).Medical Acupuncture Journal, 16 (1): 24-29.

Anna Sheridan Laser Therapy Centre Project Evaluation 1999-2000. Sheridan A (2008). Pre-publication clinical evidence summary.

Anna Sheridan Laser Therapy Centre Project Evaluation 2002-2005.Sheridan A (2008). Pre-publication clinical evidence summary.
Low Level Laser Therapy: Double Blind Study to Assess Effectiveness for Stopping Smoking. Harrison A (1993).Unpublished.

Laser therapy has been shown to independently increase endorphin release (Laakso et al 1994 above), but when used to stimulate acupuncture points for smoking cessation, whether the effects of the lasering are due totally to the acupuncture point stimulation or whether there are additional systemic photobiological effects delivered by the laser treatment which might be improving treatment effectiveness, is not yet proven. However, it is likely that the acupuncture effects represent the main part of the beneficial effect. The wealth of general acupuncture research into smoking cessation is therefore relevant and a selection of this follows below:

Acupuncture therapy for the treatment of tobacco smoking addiction.Steiner RP, Hay DL, Davis AW (1982). AM J Chin Med, 19:107-121

Evaluation of acupuncture as a treatment for smoking.Swartz J (1998) American Journal of
Acupuncture, 16 (2): 135 – 142.

Smoking withdrawal and acupuncture. Fuller JA (1982).Medical Journal Australia, 1: 28-29.

Auricular acupuncture for smoking withdrawal.Gilbey V. & Neumann B. (1977). American Journal of Acupuncture, 5: 239-247.

Efficacité de l’acupuncture dans un essai comparatif.Lacroix JC. & Besancon F. Le sevrage du tabac. Ann Med Intern (Paris) 1977; 128: 405-408.

The use of laser on acupuncture for smoking withdrawal. Parker LN. & Mok MS.(1977).American Journal of Acupuncture, 3: 363-366.

The use of laser on acupuncture points for smoking cessation. Tan CH. & Haung XG (1987).American Journal of Acupuncture, 13(2): 137-141.

Acupuncture anti-tabagique.Lagrue G. Poupy JL. Grillot A. Ansquer JC (1980). La Nouvelle Presse Médicale, 9: 966.

Acupuncture for smokers: lack of long-term effect in a controlled study.Lamontagne Y. Lawrence A. Gagnon MA (1980). Canadian Medical Journal, 5: 787-790.
The efficacy of acupuncture as an aid to stopping smoking.Martin GP. Waite PM (1981). New Zealand Medical Journal, 93: 421-423.


Chronic Pain


Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in the management of neck pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo or active-treatment controlled trials.
Chow, R.T., Johnson, M.I., Lopes-Martins, R.A.B and Bjordal, J.M. (2009). The Lancet 374 (9705):1897-1908.

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Neck pain is a common and costly condition for which pharmacological management has limited evidence of efficacy and side-effects. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a relatively uncommon, non-invasive treatment for neck pain, in which non-thermal laser irradiation is applied to sites of pain. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials to assess the efficacy of LLLT in neck pain.
METHODS: We searched computerised databases comparing efficacy of LLLT using any wavelength with placebo or with active control in acute or chronic neck pain. Effect size for the primary outcome, pain intensity, was defined as a pooled estimate of mean difference in change in mm on 100 mm visual analogue scale.
FINDINGS: We identified 16 randomised controlled trials including a total of 820 patients. In acute neck pain, results of two trials showed a relative risk (RR) of 1.69 (95% CI 1.22-2.33) for pain improvement of LLLT versus placebo. Five trials of chronic neck pain reporting categorical data showed an RR for pain improvement of 4.05 (2.74-5.98) of LLLT. Patients in 11 trials reporting changes in visual analogue scale had pain intensity reduced by 19.86 mm (10.04-29.68). Seven trials provided follow-up data for 1-22 weeks after completion of treatment, with short-term pain relief persisting in the medium term with a reduction of 22.07 mm (17.42-26.72). Side-effects from LLLT were mild and not different from those of placebo.
INTERPRETATION: We show that LLLT reduces pain immediately after treatment in acute neck pain and up to 22 weeks after completion of treatment in patients with chronic neck pain.FUNDING: None.

A systematic review of low level laser therapy with location-specific doses for pain from chronic joint disorders.
Bjordal, J., Couppe,C., Chow, R., Tuner, J., Ljunggren, E. (2003).Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 49(2):107-16.

Foot problems in rheumatology.
Woodburn, J., Helliwell, P.S. (1997). British Journal of Rheumatology 36(9):932-4.

What else can I do but take drugs: The future of research on nonpharmacological treatment in early inflammatory arthritis.
Li, L. (2005). Journal of Rheumatology Supplement 72:21-4.

Clinical Studies

A Double Blind Crossover Trial of Low Level Laser Therapy in the Treatment of Post Herpetic Neuralgia.
Moore K C, Hira N, Kumar P S, Jaykumar C S & Ohshiro T (1989). Laser Therapy 1 (1):7-9.

Abstract: Post herpetic neuralgia can be an extremely painful condition which in many cases proves resistant to all the accepted forms of treatment. It is frequently most severe in the elderly and may persist for years with no predictable course. This trial was designed as a double blind assessment of the efficacy of low level laser therapy in the relief of the pain of post herpetic neuralgia with patients acting as their own controls. Admission to the trial was limited to patients with established post herpetic neuralgia of at least six months duration and who had shown little or no response to conventional methods of treatment. Measurements of pain intensity and distribution were noted over a period of eight treatments in two groups of patients each of which received four consecutive laser treatments. The results demonstrate a significant reduction in both pain intensity and distribution following a course of low level laser therapy.

Combination Therapy Comprising Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) and Brace Therapy for Chronic Lower Back Pain Patients.

Ohkuni I, Ushigome N, Harada T, Oshiro T, Musya Y, Mizutani K, Takahashi H, Suguro T, and Tsuchiya K (2009). Laser Therapy 18.4: 187-192.

Abstract: Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) in combination with a sacroiliac brace was used on 33 patients with chronic lower back pain to examine the effectiveness of this combination therapy. A semiconductor laser (1000mW, CW, 830nm) was used. Due to the short duration effect of LLLT previously reported, we tested the effect of combination therapy using LLLT and a sacroliliac brace. Our results showed that the number of patients who had lower back pain in their activities of daily living (ADL) or work decreased, and this combination therapy improved both their ADL and quality of life (QOL). Chronic lower back pain patients who had just started visiting our hospital obtained satisfactory results with LLLT but the latency period was short. In order to maintain the effects of LLLT, we controlled the patients' posture with a sacroiliac brace, which was able to prevent chronic pain for a longer period. The combination treatment was well-tolerated, side-effect free and offered good efficacy in improving pain and range of motion of the lumbar spine.

Photobiomodulation of pain and inflammation in microcrystalline arthropathies: experimental and clinical results.

Soriano, F., Campana, V., Moya, M., Gavotto, A., Simes, J., Soriano, M., Soriano, R., Spitale, L., Palma, J. (2006).Photomedicine & Laser Surgery 24(2): 140-150.Djavid,G.E., Mehrdad, R.,

Long-term efficacy of low level laser therapy in women with fibromyalgia: A placebo-controlled study.
Armagan O, Tascioglu F, Ekim A and Oner C (2006). Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation 19: 135-140.

The Effects of Laser Acupuncture on Chronic Tension Headache – A Radomised Controlled Trial.
Ebneshahidi N S, Heshmatipour M, Moghaddami A & Eghtesadi-Araghi P (2005). Acupuncture in Medicine, 23 (1): 13-18.

Photobiomodulation of Pain in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Review of Seven Laser Therapy Studies.
Naeser M A (2006). Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, 24 (2):101-110.

LLLT (Lower Reactive Level Laser Therapy) – A Clinical Study: Relationship between Pain Attenuation and the Serotonergic Mechanism.
Mizokami T, Aoki K, Iwabuchi S, Kasai K, Yamazaki Y, Sakurai T, Samejima K & Yoshii N (1993). Laser Therapy, 5:165-168.

In chronic low back pain, low level laser therapy combined with exercise is more beneficial than exercise alone in the long term: a randomised trial.
Ghasemi, M., Hasan-Zadeh, H., Sotoodeh-Manesh, A. & Pouryaghoub, G. (2007). Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 53:155-160.

Low-Intensity Laser Therapy for Painful Symptoms of Diabetic Sensorimotor Polyneuropathy.
Ainman LH, Ngo M, Ng E T, Nwe T, Gogov S & Bril V (2004). Diabetes Care, 27:921-924.

Efficacy of low power laser therapy in fibromyalgia.
Gur, A., Karakoc, M., Nas, K. et al (2002). Lasers Med Sci 17(1):57-61.

Efficacy of 904nm Gallium Arsenide Low Level Laser Therapy in the Management of Chronic Myofascial Pain in the Neck: A Double-Blind and Randomized Controlled Trial.
Gur A, Sarac A J, Cevik R, Altindag O and Sarac S (2004). Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 35: 229-235.

Laser Acupuncture in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Double-Blind, Randomised Controlled Study. Yurtkuran, M., Konur, S., Ozcakir, S., Bingol, U. (2007). Photomedicine & Laser Surgery 25 (1):14-20.

Low level laser therapy (classes I,II and III) for treating rheumatoid arthritis.
Brosseau, L., Gam, A., Harman, K., Morin, M. et al (2005).The Cochrane Library, Issue 1.

Low level laser therapy (classes I,II and III) for treating osteoarthritis.
Brosseau, L., Gam, A., Harman, K., Morin, M. et al (2004). The Cochrane Library, Issue 3.

Randomised controlled trial on LLLT in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the hand.
Brosseau, L., Wells, G., Marchand, S., Baboury, I. et al (2005).Lasers in Surgery & Medicine 36(3): 210-219.

Double blind, randomised, placebo controlled low level laser therapy study in patients with primary Raynaud’s phenomenon.
Hirschl, M., Katzenschlager, R., Ammer, K., Melnizky, P. et al (2002).VASA 31(2):91-4.

Low level laser treatment of primary and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon.
Al Awami M, Schillinger M, Gschwandtner M E et al (2001).. VASA 30 (4): 281-284.

Low level laser therapy in primary Raynaud’s phenomenon.
Hirschl, M., Katzenschlager, R., Francesconi, C., Kundi, M. (2004). Journal of Rheumatology 31(12):2408-12.

Low Level Laser Therapy in Primary Raynaud's Phenomenon — Results of a Placebo Controlled, Double Blind Intervention Study From the Department of Angiology, Hanusch Hospital, Vienna; and the Institute of Environmental Health, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
Mirko Hirschl, Reinhold Katzenschlager, Claudia Francesconi, And Michael Kundi (2004)..

Low level laser therapy for treatment of primary and secondary Raynaud's phenomenon.
Al-Awami M, Schillinger M, Maca T, Pollanz S, Minar E. Department of Medical Angiology, University of Vienna, Austria.

In Vitro Studies

The effect of 820nm Laser irradiation upon conduction in the frog ( rana temporaria) sciatic nerve in vitro.
Walsh D, Baxter G D, Allen JM (1995). Laser Therapy, 7: 5-10.

Effects of NeNe laser on levels of stress protein and arthritic histopathology in experimental osteoarthritis.
Lin. Y et al (2004). American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 83(10):758-765.

Nerve Regeneration

Clinical Studies

A preliminary clinical study comparing the effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) and corticosteroid therapy in the treatment of facial palsy.
Yamada H, Yananaka Y, Orihara H & Ogawa H (1995). Laser Therapy 7: 157-162.

Abstract: Seven cases of peripheral facial palsy, who were patients of our hospital’s dermatological clinic, were treated with diode low reactive-level laser therapy (LLLT) while another seven cases, who were patients of our hospital’s otolaryngological clinic, were treated with a combination therapy consisting of LLLT and corticosteroid therapy, over the past one and half years. The clinical efficacy of the two regimens has been analyzed so that the comparison could be made utilizing a separate corticosteroid therapy group as the control. Those patients who had received LLLT showed a very similar overall recovery from the palsy when compared to those treated with corticosteroid, however, those patients who had received the combination therapy showed the best recovery in the shortest period. No clinically significant adverse effect resulting from the LLLT was noted. Our results suggest that LLLT would be a suitable alternative treatment for those facial palsy patients for whom corticosteroid is not manageable, and furthermore that LLLT would be an ideal adjunctive treatment for those facial palsy patients for whom corticosteroid therapy is manageable.

Efficacy of low level laser therapy on neurosensory recovery after injury to the inferior alveolar nerve.

Ozen T, Gorur I and Ozturk A (2006).Head & Face Medicine 2(3).
Experimental Studies

Light promotes regeneration and functional recovery and alters the immune response after spinal cord injury.
Byrnes, K., Waynant, R., Ilev, I., Wu, X. et al (2005). Lasers in Surgery & Medicine 36(3): 171-185.

Double-blind randomized study evaluating regeneration of the rat transected sciatic nerve after suturing and postoperative low-power laser treatment.
Shamir M H, Rochkind S, Sandbank J, Alon M (2001).Journal of reconstructive microsurgery. 2001; 17 (2): 133-137.

Effects of laser irradiation on the spinal cord for the regeneration of crushed peripheral nerve in rats.
Rochkind-S, Nissan-M, Alon-M et al. (2001). Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 2001, 28 (3): 216-219.

An Innovative approach to induce regeneration and the repair of spinal cord injury.
Rochkind S, Shahar A & Nevo Z (1997). Laser Therapy 9 (4): 151.

Pain suppressive effect of low power laser irradiation. A quantitative analysis of substance P in the rat spinal dorsal root ganglion.
Ohno T (1997). J Nippon Med Sch. 64 (5): 395-400. (In Japanese with English abstract).

The effects of low level laser treatment on recovery of nerve conduction and motor function after compression injury in the rat sciatic nerve.
Khullar SM, Brodin P, Messelt EB, Haanaes HR (1995) European Journal of Oral Science, 103:299-305.

Diode Laser Irradiation Selectively Diminishes Slow Component Of Axonal Volleys To Dorsal Roots From The Saphenous Nerve.
Tsuchiya K et al. (1993).Neuroscience Letters, 161: 65-68.

Light Therapy - A Non-Invasive Emerging Therapy for Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury. Anders J J (2007). Lecture given at Working 2 Walk Science Symposium, April 22, 2007 in Washington DC.

Low reactive-level 830 nm Ga Al As diode laser therapy (LLLT) successfully accelerates regeneration of peripheral nerves in human.
Midamba E D & Haanaes H R (1993) Laser Therapy 5:125.


Equine Disorders

Clinical Studies

Low Level Laser Therapy in Horses.
Yamada, H., Kameya, T., Abe, N., & Miyahara, K. (1989). Laser Therapy, 1 (1): 31-35.

Abstract: Nineteen horses mainly with chronic inflammation of tendon and / or ligament that had not responded well to conventional medicine and methodologies, were treated by contact or acupuncture technique using gallium aluminium arsenide (Ga-AI-As) diode laser (10mW, 790nm) without medicament. The treatments were performed every day or every other week, for 20 to 40 s on the affected area or acupoints. Of 19 cases, 12 (63.2%) were cured, five (26.3%) were improved and two (10.5%) were unchanged. It was concluded that clinical application of low level laser therapy, such as contact and / or laser acupuncture technique is non-invasive and not painful for animals and effective in pain suppression and improvement of inflammatory reaction, especially in acute and mild cases.

Therapy of RAO (COPD) In Horses – Controlled Laser Acupuncture Versus Pharmacotherapy. Reitz, A (2008). Zeitschrift für Ganzheitlich Tiermedizin: 10-13.

A Study of the Effects of Lasering on Chronic Bowed Tendons at Wheatley Hall Farm Limited Canada.
McKibbin, L. S., Paraschak, D M. (1983). Lasers in Surgery and Medicine, 3: 55-59.

Soft Laser Treatment of Musculoskeletal and Other Disorders in the Equine Athlete.
Antikatzides,T.G. (1986). Equine Practice, 8 (2).

Use of Laser Light to treat Certain Lesions in Standardbreds.
McKibben, L.S., Paraschak, D. (1984). Modern Veterinary Practice, March 1984.

An investigation into the depth of Penetration of Low Lever laser Therapy Through the Equine Tendon In Vivo.
Ryan, T. And Smith, R.K.W.(2007). Irish Veterinary Journal 60 (5).

Treatment of Chronic Back Pain in Horses – Stimulation of Acupuncture Points with a Low Powered Infrared Laser.
Benson, B. MJnr & Klide, A.M. (1987). Veterinary Surgery 16 (1): 106- 110.

Soft Laser in the Conservative Treatment of Chronic Skin Lesions in the Horse. Muxeneder R (1987). Praktische Tierarzt, 68 (1): 12 –21.

The effects of low level lasers on soft tissue in veterinary medicine.
Lloyd S. McKibbin and Robert Downie.
The Acupuncture Institute, Wheatley, Ontario, Canada N0P 2P0 Unpublished.
LP – Laser effects in equine traumatology and post-surgery. Theo. G. Antikas (1990)Unpublished.

A review of clinical applications of Low Level Laser Therapy in Veterinary Medicine.
Kaymeya T, Wang L, and Haruo Y () .....

Laser therapy by fibroendoscopy in the mucosa of the equine upper airway.
Gomez-Villamandos R.J., Santisteban-Valenzuela J.M, Ruiz-Calatrava I., Gomez-Villamandos J.C., Avila-Jurado I. ( ).....,

Laser Therapy and Wound Healing in Horses
Peterson, S.L., et al. (1999) Equine Veterinary Journal, 31.

Laser Acupuncture on Horses with COPD.
Petermann, U ( 1998) Prakt Tierarzt, Akupunktur, Germany.

Laserakupunktur bei infizierter Tendinitis des Pferdes.
Petermann, U (1999). Prakt Tierarzt 1.

Lasertherapie in der Veterinärmedizin.
Petermann, U (1998).. Vet Impulse 24: 12-13.

The role of laser acupuncture in equine back problems.
Petermann, U ( )Prakt Tierarzt, Akupunktur.

Laser acupuncture treatment of infected arthritis and tendosynovitis in horses.
Petermann, U ( ) Prakt Tierarzt, Akupunktur.



Clinical Studies

Visible 405nm SLD light photo-destroys methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in vitro.
Enwemeka, C.S., Hollosi, S., Yens, D. and Enwemeka, S.K. (2009). Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 40:734-737.

Low-Intensity Laser Therapy is an Effective Treatment for Recurrent Herpes Simplex infection – Results from a Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study.
Schindl A & Neumann R (1998). Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 113:221-223.

Veruccae Pedis: Evaluation of a method of eradication using class 3B (low-level) laser therapy – a double blind clinical study.
Turner W.A.Unpublished (submitted in 2002 to American Society of Lasers in Surgery & Medicine).

The Efficacy of Laser Surgery for Verruca Plantaries: Report of a Study.
Lawrence A Lavery BS - Dr William M Scholl College of Podiatric Medicine, Chicago, Illinois. Johnathon M Cutler BS, Dr William M Scholl College of Podiatric Medicine, Chicago, Illinois. Adolph W Galinski DPM, American Board of Podiatric Surgery, Dept of Surgical Sciences Dr William M Scholl College of Podiatric Medicine, Chicago, Illinois. Bart W Gastwirth DPM, American Board of Podiatric Orthopedics, Dr William M Scholl College of Podiatric Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.


Experimental Studies

Effect of therapy with an immunomodulator (imiquimod, R-837) alone and with acyclovir on genital HSV-2 infection in guinea-pigs when begun after lesion development.
Bernstein D I, Miller R L and Harrison C J (1993).Antiviral Research, 20: 45-55.

Low-level laser therapy decreases local effects induced by myotoxins isolated from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom.
Barbosa A M, Villaverde A B, Guimarães-Sousa L I, Soares A M, Zamuner S F, Cogo J C, Zamuner S R (2010). Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases 16 no (3).


Dental Conditions


Low-level laser use in dentistry.
Parker, S (2007). British Dental Journal, 202, 131-138.
Human Studies

Clinical Studies

Clinical results evaluation of dentinary hypersensitivity patients treated with laser therapy. Brugnera A, Cruz FM, Zanin FA & Pecora JD (1999).Proc. SPIE Vol. 3593: 66-68.

300 human teeth were treated for hypersensitivity during the period 1995-1997. Pulpal vitality was verified using thermal tests, and only reversible processes were treated. HeNe and GaAlAs lasers were used. All teeth received 4 J/session, up to 5 sessions. 79% of the patients were treated in 3 sessions with success; 8.6% were cured in 4 sessions; and 4.3% were successfully treated in 5 sessions, obtaining 92% success in total.

Efficacy of low level laser therapy on neurosensory recovery after injury to the inferior alveolar nerve. Ozen T, Gorur I, and Ozturk A (2006).Head & Face Medicine 2(3).

Effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Candida albicans Growth in Patients with Denture Stomatitis
Maver-Biscanin M, Mravak-Stipetic M and Jerolimov V (2005). Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, 23 (3): 328 -332.

Low-level laser therapy is an important tool to treat disorders of the maxillofacial region (TMJ) Pinheiro A L, Cavalcanti T T, Pinheiro T I, Aves M J, Miranda E R, De Quevedo A S, Manzi C T, Vieira A L, Rolim A B (1998).. Journal of Clinical Lasers in Medicine and Surgery, 16 (4): 223-226.

Experimental Studies

Analgesic effect of soft laser irradiation on the heat nociciptors in the cat tongue.
Mezawa S & Saito T (1989).Lasers in Dentistry : 267-276. Eds: Yamamoto H, Atsumi K and Kusakari H.

In Vitro Studies

Effect of low level laser therapy on the repair of bone defects grafted with inorganic bovine bone.
PinheiroI A L B, Limeira F D A JrII, Gerbill M E M, Ramalho P III, Marzola C IV and Ponzi E A C. (2003). Brazilian Dental Journal , 14(3).

Low level laser therapy in treatment of lesions in the inferior alveolar and mental nerves. Brugnera A Jr, et al.(2000). In Proceedings of 3rd Congress of World Association For Laser Therapy.

Comparative clinical study of light analgesic effect on temporomandibular disorder (TMD) using red and infrared led therapy.
Panhoca VH, de Fatima Zanirato Lizarelli R, Nunez SC, Pizzo RC, Grecco C, Paolillo FR, Bagnato VS
Optics Group from Physics Institute of Sao Carlos (IFSC), University of Sao Paulo (USP), Brazil. Av. Trabalhador Sancarlense, 400-Centro, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil,

Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been widely applied in pain relief in several clinical situations, including temporomandibular disorders (TMD). However, the effects of LED therapy on TMD has not been investigated. This study aims to evaluate the effects of red and infrared LEDs on: (1) tissue temperature in ex vivo and (2) pain relief and mandibular range of motion in patients with TMD. Thirty patients between 18 and 40 years old were included and randomly assigned to three groups. The two experimental groups were: the red LED (630 +/- 10 nm) group and the infrared LED (850 +/- 10 nm) group. The irradiation parameters were 150 mW, 300 mW/cm2, 18 J/cm2, and 9 J/point. The positive control group received an infrared laser (780 nm) with 70 mW, 1.7 W/cm2, 105 J/cm2, and 4.2 J/point. LED and laser therapies were applied bilaterally to the face for 60 s/point. Five points were irradiated: three points around the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), one point for the temporalis, and one near the masseter. Eight sessions of phototherapy were performed, twice a week for 4 weeks. Pain induced by palpating the masseter muscle and mandibular range of motion (maximum oral aperture) were measured at baseline, immediately after treatment, 7 days after treatment, and 30 days after treatment. There was an increase in tissue temperature during both the red and the infrared LED irradiation in ex vivo. There was a significant reduction of pain and increase of the maximum oral aperture for all groups (p >/= 0.05). There was no significant difference in pain scores and maximum oral aperture between groups at baseline or any periods after treatment (p >/= 0.05). The current study showed that red and infrared LED therapy can be useful in improving outcomes related to pain relief and orofacial function for TMD patients. We conclude that LED devices constitute an attractive alternative for LLLT.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Oct 3



Clinical evaluation of low-power laser and a desensitizing agent on dentin hypersensitivity.
Lopes AO, de Paula Eduardo C, Aranha AC

Special Laboratory of Lasers (LELO), Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2227, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP, 05580-900, Brazil,

The aim of this randomized, longitudinal clinical study was to evaluate different protocols for dentin hypersensitivity treatment with low-power laser at different dosages, desensitizing agent, and associations, for a period of 6 months. After analysis of the inclusion and exclusion criteria of volunteer participants, those who present pain resulting from non-carious cervical lesions were selected. Twenty-seven patients participated in the study, and 55 lesions were recorded. The lesions were divided into five groups (n = 11), treated, and evaluated: G1: Gluma Desensitizer (Heraeus); G2: low-power laser (Photon Lase, DMC) at low dose (three vestibular points and one apical point of irradiation: 30 mW, 10 J/cm2, 9 s per point with wavelength of 810 nm), three sessions were performed with an interval of 72 h between them; G3: low-power laser at high dose (application at one cervical and one apical point: 100 mW, 90 J/cm2, 11 s per point with wavelength of 810 nm), three sessions were performed with an interval of 72 h between irradiations; G4: low-power laser at low dose + Gluma Desensitizer; and G5: low-power laser at high dose + Gluma Desensitizer, the level of sensitivity of each volunteer was evaluated with a visual analog scale of pain (VAS) with the use of air from a triple syringe and exploration with a probe after time intervals of 5 min, 1 week, and 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. Data were collected and subjected to statistical analysis. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to verify the distribution of the data, and nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman tests were performed for comparison among the experimental groups and time intervals studied, respectively. Statistically significant differences between the studied time intervals (p < 0.05) were detected. From the difference in pain, it was observed that for both stimuli, the protocol with the Gluma desensitizing agent presented immediate effects of pain reduction. For low-level lasers, it was observed that there were distinct effects for the different doses; however, both were efficient in reducing pain up to the 6 months of clinical follow-up. Therefore, it could be concluded that all the desensitizing protocols were effective in reducing dentin hypersensitivity, but with different effects. The combination of protocols is an interesting alternative in the treatment of cervical dentin hypersensitivity.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Oct


Treatment of refractory venous stasis ulcers with autologous platelet-rich plasma and light-emitting diodes: a pilot study.
Park KY, Kim IS, Yeo IK, Kim BJ, Kim MN

Department of Dermatology, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

BACKGROUND: Stasis dermatitis with secondary ulcer formation is not only therapeutically challenging but also significantly decreases the quality of life for affected individuals. Recently, autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has entered the therapeutic regimen for leg ulcers, while light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are now used to accelerate wound healing. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of autologous PRP with concomitant LED therapy for the treatment of venous stasis dermatitis with secondary ulceration. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In total, 16 Korean patients with ulcers secondary to venous stasis dermatitis were enrolled in this study. Each lesion was treated with autologous PRP weakly, and LED therapy three times per week. Treatments continued for 6 weeks or until the ulcer completely reepithelialized without evidence of drainage. Not only were subjects objectively evaluated by a study investigator, their own subjective satisfaction was also assessed. RESULTS: The combined autologous PRP and LED therapy was well tolerated and safe. A statistically significant improvement was observed post-therapeutically in the clinical parameters of pain, itching, heaviness, paresthesia, cramps, and leg swelling. There was also a significant decrease in ulcer size. None of the patients showed worsening of their venous stasis ulcer. Regarding subject satisfaction with the regimen, 75.0% of participants reported being ‘satisfied or very satisfied’ with their overall improvement after treatment. No significant adverse effects were observed. CONCLUSION: Combined autologous PRP and LED therapy is a promising conservative combination regimen for treating recalcitrant ulcerating stasis dermatitis. Additional studies comparing combined autologous PRP and LED therapy directly with autologous PRP or LED monotherapies are needed to confirm the results reported here.

J Dermatolog Treat 2013 Oct 24(5) 332-5




Light-emitting diode phototherapy improves muscle recovery after a damaging exercise.
Borges LS, Cerqueira MS, Dos Santos Rocha JA, Conrado LA, Machado M, Pereira R, Neto OP

Department of Biological Sciences, State University of Southwest Bahia (UESB), Jequie, 45210-506, Bahia, Brazil.

The goal of the present study was to determine the effect of light-emitting diode phototherapy (LEDT) at 630 nm on muscle recovery after a damaging eccentric exercise bout. Seventeen healthy young male volunteers, without previous experience with eccentric exercise, were included in a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. They were divided into a LEDT (n = 8) and a PLACEBO group (n = 9). To induce muscle damage, subjects performed 30 eccentric contractions with a load of 100 % of maximal voluntary isometric contraction strength of the elbow flexors of the non-dominant arm. LEDT group subjects received biceps brachii phototherapy (lambda 630 nm; total energy density, 20.4 J/cm2) immediately after the exercise bout. The LEDT in the placebo group was aimed at the muscle, but it remained turned off. Isometric muscle strength, muscle soreness, and elbow range of motion (ROM) were measured before and at 24, 48, 72, and 96 h the after eccentric exercise bout and compared between groups. Our results showed that the muscle soreness, muscle strength loss, and ROM impairments were significantly reduced up to 96 h after a damaging eccentric exercise bout for the LEDT group compared with the PLACEBO group. A single LEDT (630 nm) intervention immediately after a damaging eccentric exercise bout was effective in terms of attenuating the muscle soreness and muscle strength loss and ROM impairments.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Nov 21



Photomedicine: the early years.
Moore KC

Former Consultant Anaesthetist and Director Pain & Laser Therapy Clinic, The Royal Oldham Haspital , Oldham, UK ; Medical Director and Chief Executive, Dr Kershaw’s Hospice, Oldham, UK; and Honorary Treasurer and Member of Executive Council, World Association for Laser Therapy.

Photomed Laser Surg 2013 Dec 31(12) 563-4



The effectiveness of physiotherapeutic interventions in treatment of frozen shoulder/adhesive capsulitis: A systematic review.
Jain TK, Sharma NK

Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Frozen shoulder is a common condition, yet its treatment remains challenging. In this review, the current best evidence for the use of physical therapy interventions (PTI) is evaluated.METHOD: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane, PEDro, ProQuest, Science Direct, and Sport Discus were searched for studies published in English since 2000. RESULTS: 39 articles describing the PTI were analyzed using Sackett’s levels of evidence and were examined for scientific rigor. The PTI were given grades of recommendation that ranged from A to C. CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic exercises and mobilization are strongly recommended for reducing pain, improving range of motion (ROM) and function in patients with stages 2 and 3 of frozen shoulder. Low-level laser therapy is strongly suggested for pain relief and moderately suggested for improving function but not recommended for improving ROM. Corticosteroid injections can be used for stage 1 frozen shoulder. Acupuncture with therapeutic exercises is moderately recommended for pain relief, improving ROM and function. Electro- therapy can help in providing short-term pain relief. Continuous passive motion is recommended for short-term pain relief but not for improving ROM or function. Deep heat can be used for pain relief and improving ROM. Ultrasound for pain relief, improving ROM or function is not recommended.

J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil 2013 Nov 27



Subacromial impingement syndrome–effectiveness of physiotherapy and manual therapy.
Gebremariam L, Hay EM, van der Sande R, Rinkel WD, Koes BW, Huisstede BM

Department of General Practice, Erasmus MC-University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

BACKGROUND: The subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS) includes the rotator cuff syndrome, tendonitis and bursitis of the shoulder. Treatment includes surgical and non-surgical modalities. Non-surgical treatment is used to reduce pain, to decrease the subacromial inflammation, to heal the compromised rotator cuff and to restore satisfactory function of the shoulder. To select the most appropriate non-surgical intervention and to identify gaps in scientific knowledge, we explored the effectiveness of the interventions used, concentrating on the effectiveness of physiotherapy and manual therapy. METHODS: The Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, PEDro and CINAHL were searched for relevant systematic reviews and randomised clinical trials (RCTs). Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality. A best-evidence synthesis was used to summarise the results. RESULTS: Two reviews and 10 RCTs were included. One RCT studied manual therapy as an add-on therapy to self-training. All other studies studied the effect of physiotherapy: effectiveness of exercise therapy, mobilisation as an add-on therapy to exercises, ultrasound, laser and pulsed electromagnetic field. Moderate evidence was found for the effectiveness of hyperthermia compared to exercise therapy or ultrasound in the short term. Hyperthermia and exercise therapy were more effective in comparison to controls or placebo in the short term (moderate evidence). For the effectiveness of hyperthermia, no midterm or long-term results were studied. In the midterm, exercise therapy gave the best results (moderate evidence) compared to placebo or controls. For other interventions, conflicting, limited or no evidence was found. CONCLUSIONS: Some physiotherapeutic treatments seem to be promising (moderate evidence) to treat SIS, but more research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn.

Br J Sports Med 2013 Nov 11



Effect of low-level laser stimulation on EEG power in normal subjects with closed eyes.
Wu JH, Chang YC

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ming Chuan University, No. 5 Deming Road, Guishan Township, Taoyuan County 333, Taiwan.

In a previous study, we found that the low-level laser (LLL) stimulation at the palm with a frequency of 10 Hz was able to induce significant brain activation in normal subjects with opened eyes. However, the electroencephalography (EEG) changes to LLL stimulation in subjects with closed eyes have not been studied. In the present study, the laser array stimulator was applied to deliver insensible laser stimulations to the palm of the tested subjects with closed eyes (the laser group). The EEG activities before, during, and after the laser stimulation were collected. The EEG amplitude powers of each EEG frequency band at 19 locations were calculated. These power data were then analyzed by SPSS software using repeated-measure ANOVAs and appropriate posthoc tests. We found a pronounced decrease in the EEG power in alpha-bandwidth during laser simulation and then less decrease in the EEG power in delta-bandwidth in normal subjects with laser stimulation. The EEG power in beta-bandwidth in the right occipital area also decreased significantly in the laser group. We suggest that LLL stimulation might be conducive to falling into sleep in patients with sleep problems.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013 2013 476565



Efficacy of Low-Level Laser Therapy in the Management of Tinnitus due to Noise-Induced Hearing Loss: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial.
Mollasadeghi A, Mirmohammadi SJ, Mehrparvar AH, Davari MH, Shokouh P, Mostaghaci M, Baradaranfar MH, Bahaloo M

Department of Occupational Medicine, School of Medicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 89138-14389, Yazd, Iran.

Background. Several remedial modalities for the treatment of tinnitus have been proposed, but an effective standard treatment is still to be confirmed. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy on tinnitus accompanied by noise-induced hearing loss. Methods. This was a double-blind randomized clinical trial on subjects suffering from tinnitus accompanied by noise-induced hearing loss. The study intervention was 20 sessions of low-level laser therapy every other day, 20 minutes each session. Tinnitus was assessed by three methods (visual analog scale, tinnitus handicap inventory, and tinnitus loudness) at baseline, immediately and 3 months after the intervention. Results. All subjects were male workers with age range of 30-51 years. The mean tinnitus duration was 1.85 +/- 0.78 years. All three measurement methods have shown improved values after laser therapy compared with the placebo both immediately and 3 months after treatment. Laser therapy revealed a U-shaped efficacy throughout the course of follow-up. Nonresponse rate of the intervention was 57% and 70% in the two assessment time points, respectively. Conclusion. This study found low-level laser therapy to be effective in alleviating tinnitus in patients with noise-induced hearing loss, although this effect has faded after 3 months of follow-up. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand clinical trials registry with identifier ACTRN12612000455864).

ScientificWorldJournal 2013 2013 596076



Can osteoarthritis be treated with light?
Hamblin MR

Osteoarthritis is becoming more problematic as the population ages. Recent reports suggest that the benefit of anti-inflammatory drugs is unimpressive and the incidence of side effects is worrying. Low-level laser (light) therapy (LLLT) is an alternative approach with no known side effects and with reports of substantial therapeutic efficacy in osteoarthritis. In this issue of Arthritis Research & Therapy, Alves and colleagues used a rat model of osteoarthritis produced by intra-articular injection of the cartilage-degrading enzyme papain to test 810-nm LLLT. A single application of LLLT produced significant reductions in inflammatory cell infiltration and inflammatory cytokines 24 hours later. A lower laser power was more effective than a higher laser power. However, more work is necessary before the title question can be answered in the affirmative.

Arthritis Res Ther 2013 15(5) 120



A Controlled Trial to Determine the Efficacy of Red and Near-Infrared Light Treatment in Patient Satisfaction, Reduction of Fine Lines, Wrinkles, Skin Roughness, and Intradermal Collagen Density Increase.
Wunsch A, Matuschka K

1 Medical Light Consulting , Heidelberg, Germany .

Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of two novel light sources for large area and full body application, providing polychromatic, non-thermal photobiomodulation (PBM) for improving skin feeling and appearance. Background data: For non-thermal photorejuvenation, laser and LED light sources have been demonstrated to be safe and effective. However, lasers and LEDs may offer some disadvantages because of dot-shaped (punctiform) emission characteristics and their narrow spectral bandwidths. Because the action spectra for tissue regeneration and repair consist of more than one wavelength, we investigated if it is favorable to apply a polychromatic spectrum covering a broader spectral region for skin rejuvenation and repair. Materials and methods: A total of 136 volunteers participated in this prospective, randomized, and controlled study. Of these volunteers, 113 subjects randomly assigned into four treatment groups were treated twice a week with either 611-650 or 570-850 nm polychromatic light (normalized to approximately 9 J/cm2 in the range of 611-650 nm) and were compared with controls (n=23). Irradiances and treatment durations varied in all treatment groups. The data collected at baseline and after 30 sessions included blinded evaluations of clinical photography, ultrasonographic collagen density measurements, computerized digital profilometry, and an assessment of patient satisfaction. Results: The treated subjects experienced significantly improved skin complexion and skin feeling, profilometrically assessed skin roughness, and ultrasonographically measured collagen density. The blinded clinical evaluation of photographs confirmed significant improvement in the intervention groups compared with the control. Conclusions: Broadband polychromatic PBM showed no advantage over the red-light-only spectrum. However, both novel light sources that have not been previously used for PBM have demonstrated efficacy and safety for skin rejuvenation and intradermal collagen increase when compared with controls.

Photomed Laser Surg 2013 Nov 28



Low-dose laser acupuncture for non-specific chronic low back pain: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.
Glazov G, Yelland M, Emery J

School of Primary, Aboriginal and Rural Health Care, University of Western Australia, , Crawley, Western Australia, Australia.

OBJECTIVE: To determine if infrared laser acupuncture (LA) may have a specific effect in reducing pain and disability in treatment of chronic low back pain (LBP). METHODS: This was a double-blind sham laser controlled trial performed in general practices in Perth, Western Australia. The participants were 144 adults with chronic non-specific LBP. They were randomised to receive eight once-weekly treatments. Laser machines (20 mW, 840 nm diode, power density 0.1 W/cm2) stimulated points in three treatment groups: sham (0 joules/point), low dose (0.2 J/point) and high dose (0.8 joules/point). Participants were followed-up at 1 and 6 weeks, and 6 and 12 months post treatment. Primary outcomes were pain (Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS)) and disability (Oswestry Disability Inventory (ODI)) at 6 weeks post treatment. Secondary outcomes included numerical rating scale for limitation of activity, global assessment of improvement, analgesic usage and adverse effects after treatment. RESULTS: The analysis showed no difference between sham and the laser groups at 6 weeks for pain or disability. There was a significant reduction in mean pain and disability in all groups at 6 weeks (p<0.005); NPRS: sham (-1.5 (95% CI -2.1 to -0.8)), low dose (-1.3 (-2.0 to -0.8)), high dose (-1.1 (-1.7 to -0.5)). ODI: sham (-4.0 (-7.1 to -1.0)), low dose (-4.1, (-6.7 to -1.5)), high dose (-2.6 (-5.7 to 0.5)). All secondary outcomes also showed clinical improvement over time but with no differences between groups. CONCLUSIONS: LA using energy density range (0-4 J/cm2) for the treatment of chronic non-specific LBP resulted in clinical improvement unrelated to laser stimulation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12610000043033.

Acupunct Med 2013 Dec 18



Preliminary results of pinpoint plantar long-wavelength infrared light irradiation on blood glucose, insulin and stress hormones in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Ryotokuji K, Ishimaru K, Kihara K, Namiki Y, Hozumi N

Faculty of Health Sciences, Ryotokuji University, Urayasu, Japan.

Background and aims: This study was aimed at the development of a novel noninvasive treatment system, “pinpoint plantar long-wavelength infrared light irradiation (PP-LILI)”, which may be able to relieve mental stress and normalize blood glucose level via the reduction of stress hormones in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. MATERIALS (SUBJECTS) AND METHODS: Based on this hypothesis, the present study was undertaken to examine effects of PP-LILI on stress hormones (ACTH and cortisol), blood glucose, HbA1c, and insulin levels in 10 patients with type 2 DM. Each patient received PP-LILI of the foot for 15 minutes once weekly using a stress free apparatus (infrared wavelength, 9,000-12,000 nm/power 30 mW). Results: In response to this therapy, ACTH (P<0.01) and cortisol (P<0.05) levels decreased significantly. Fasting blood glucose (P<0.05) and insulin (P<0.05) levels also decreased significantly along with a tendency for HbA1c to decrease. Conclusions: The present data raise the possibility that PP-LILI can normalize blood glucose levels by reducing stress hormones such as cortisol, which aggravate DM, and by improving insulin sensitivity, thereby contributing to prevention and treatment of DM.

Laser Ther 2013 22(3) 209-14



Long-term effect of high-intensity laser therapy in the treatment of patients with chronic low back pain: a randomized blinded placebo-controlled trial.
Alayat MS, Atya AM, Ali MM, Shosha TM

Basic Science Department, Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, 7 Ahmed Elziat Street from Eltahrir Street, Cairo, Egypt,

The aim of this study was to compare the effect of high-intensity laser therapy (HILT), alone or combined with exercise, in the treatment of chronic low back pain (CLBP). A total of 72 male patients participated in this study, with a mean (SD) age of 32.81 (4.48) years. Patients were randomly assigned into three groups and treated with HILT plus exercise (HILT + EX), placebo laser plus exercise (PL + EX), and HILT alone in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The outcomes measured were lumbar range of motion (ROM), pain level by visual analog scale (VAS), and functional disability by both the Roland Disability Questionnaire (RDQ) and the Modified Oswestry Disability Questionnaire (MODQ). Statistical analyses were performed to compare the differences between baseline and post-treatment measurements. The level of statistical significance was set as P < 0.05. ROM significantly increased after 4 weeks of treatment in all groups, then significantly decreased after 12 weeks of follow-up, but was still significantly more than the baseline value in groups 1 and 2. VAS, RDQ, and MODQ results showed significant decrease post-treatment in all groups, although the RDQ and MODQ results were not significantly different between groups 2 and 3. HILT combined with exercise appears to be more effective in patients with CLBP than either HLLT alone or placebo laser with exercise.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Nov 2



The use of infrared radiation in the treatment of skin laxity.
Felici M, Gentile P, De Angelis B, Puccio L, Puglisi A, Felici A, Delogu P, Cervelli V

San Camillo Hospital, Plastic Surgery , Rome , Italy.

Background: Cosmetic surgery and medicine are extremely interesting fields for a plastic surgeon. Lasers and lights determine ablation, contraction and regenerating stimulus in skin tissues. The aim of this study is to examine the use of infrared lights in treating facial and body skin laxity. Methods: Between 2007 and 2011, in the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at the Hospital San Camillo-Forlanini, 303 patients were enrolled in the study and underwent laser therapy. The laser operates in wavelength from 1100 to 1800 nm. The treated areas are: face, neck, eyebrows, abdomen, legs and buttocks. Results: We have noticed no systemic complications. A case of a patient with a three days lasting erythema on both lower eyelids caused by laser therapy healed without any pharmacological therapy. Neither hyper- nor hypopigmentation of the skin was found. The satisfaction degree of patients has been: facial, neck and eyebrow lifting “very satisfactory” for 70% of the patients, “satisfactory” for 10%, “unsatisfactory” for 20%; for the other areas it was “very satisfactory” for 40%, “satisfactory” for 20% and “unsatisfactory” for 40%. Conclusion: The use of infrared radiation represents a valid alternative to surgical lifting, but cannot replace it. The infrared light technique used has turned out to be useful in contrasting skin laxity of the face and other parts of the body. The absence of scars and surgical risk makes this technique useable for a large number of patients.

J Cosmet Laser Ther 2013 Dec 14



Efficacy observation of carpal tunnel syndrome treated with electroacupuncture.
Xia Q, Liu XW, Wang XL, Tao Y

Rehabilitation Department of TCM, First Hospital Affiliated to Dalian Medical University Dalian 116011, Liaoning Province, China.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the impacts of electroacupuncture on median nerve conduction velocity and morphology in patients of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and evaluate the efficacy of electroacupuncture on CTS. METHODS: Thirty cases of CTS were treated with electroacupuncture at Quchi (LI 11), Yangchi (TE 4), Shousanli (LI 10), Neiguan (PC 6) and Hegu (LI 4) on the affected side, combined with semiconductor laser irradiation at Shenmen (HT 7) and Yangxi (LI 5) on the affected side. The improvements in the symptoms and changes in nerve conduction velocity and ultrasound morphology were observed before and after treatment. RESULT: The clinical total effective rate was 96.7% (29/30). The median nerve conduction velocity was accelerated apparently and the amplitude was increased after treatment as compared with those before treatment, indicating the statistically significant difference (all P<0.001). The distal motor latency was shortened apparently (P<0.001) and the motor amplitude had no apparent change (P>0.05). The proximal median nerve swelling was relieved apparently after treatment (P<0.05) and the effective rate was 36.7% (11/30). There was no apparent difference in the ratio of the vertical and horizontal diameters of carpal tunnel after treatment as compared with that before treatment (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Electroacupuncture presents the positive repair function to the median nerve in the patients of CTS. It can effectively alleviate inflammatory reaction and relieve ischemia and swelling of nerve fibers. And it cannot induce the changes in morphology in a short term.

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2013 Aug 33(8) 700-2




Clinical evaluation of two desensitizing treatments in southern Brazil: A 3-month follow-up.
Lund RG, Silva AF, Piva E, Da Rosa WL, Heckmann SS, Demarco FF

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Postgraduate Program in Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two treatments for dentin hypersensitivity in vivo during 90 days of follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 117 teeth (13 patients) that were divided into three groups: control with carbomer 940 gel (n = 32) (placebo treatment), 2% sodium fluoride gel (n = 31) and low-level infrared diode laser (n = 54). Prior to the desensitizing treatment, the dentin hypersensitivity status of each tooth was assessed by an evaporative stimulus; the patient’s response was evaluated using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and by counting the Exposure Time to Air Blast (ETAB) with a dental air syringe. Re-evaluations of the treatments occurred after 5 min, 7, 15, 30 and 90 days. The statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, Friedman test, one-way ANOVA, Tukey’s test and Spearman’s rank correlation (alpha = 5%). RESULTS: No significant differences were observed among the low-level laser, 2% topical fluoride and carbomer 940 gel applications. When the methods of evaluation (VAS and ETAB) were compared, there was no difference among the groups with respect to the values for every period of evaluation (p < 0.001), verifying that the scores obtained with the VAS decreased at the same proportion as the remaining time of ETAB increased. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that both tested therapies were efficacious in controlling painful symptoms associated with dentin hypersensitivity over the entire 90-day follow-up period. The treatments were able to reduce the painful symptoms caused by dentin hypersensitivity, including placebo.

Acta Odontol Scand 2013 Nov 71(6) 1469-74



Effect of low-level laser therapy on the post-surgical inflammatory process after third molar removal: study protocol for a double-blind randomized controlled trial.
Oliveira Sierra S, Melo Deana A, Agnelli Mesquita Ferrari R, Maia Albarello P, Kalil Bussadori S, Porta Santos Fernandes K

BACKGROUND: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been shown to modulate the inflammatory process without adverse effects , by reducing pain and swelling and promoting the repair of damaged tissues. Because pain, swelling and muscle spasm are complications found in virtually all patients following oral surgery for the removal of impacted teeth, this model has been widely used to evaluate the effects of LLLT on the inflammatory process involving bone and, connective tissue and the muscles involved in mastication. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of LLLT in reducing pain, swelling and muscle spasm resulting from the removal of impacted lower third molars and evaluate the effects of surgery on patients’ quality of life of patients (QOL).Methods/design: After meeting the eligibility criteria, 60 patients treated at a Specialty Dental Center for the removal of impacted lower third molars will be randomly divided into five groups according to the type of laser therapy used at the end of surgery (intraoral irradiation with 660 nm laser; extraoral irradiation with 660 nm laser; intraoral irradiation with 808 nm laser; extraoral irradiation with 808 nm laser and no irradiation). To ensure that patients are blinded to the type of treatment they are receiving, the hand piece of the laser apparatus will be applied both intraorally and extraorally to all participants, but the device will be turned on only at the appropriate time, as determined by the randomization process. At 2 and 7 days after surgery, the patients will be evaluated by three blinded evaluators who will measure of swelling, mouth opening (muscle spasm evaluation) and pain (using two different pain scales). The 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) will be used to assess QOL. All data will be analyzed with respect to the normality of distribution using the Shapiro-Wilk test. Statistically significant differences between the experimental groups will be determined using analysis of variance, followed by a suitable post hoc test, when necessary. The significance level will be set at alpha = 0.05. DISCUSSION: The lack of standardization in studies with regard to the samples, methods and LLLT parameters complicates the determination of the actual effect of laser therapy on this model. The present study aims to provide a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial to compare four different LLLT parameters in relation to the outcomes of pain, swelling and muscle spasm following surgery for the extraction of impacted third molars.Trial registration: Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials – Rebec (RBR-6XSB5H).

Trials 2013 Nov 6 14(1) 373



Role of nitric oxide in responses of pial arterial vessels to low-intensity red laser irradiation.
Gorshkova OP, Shuvaeva VN, Dvoretsky DP

I. P. Pavlov Institute of Physiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia.

The responses of rat pial vessels to red laser irradiation can be mediated by NO. NO mainly affects major arteries and did not contribute to reactivity of small pial arteries and precortical arterioles.

Bull Exp Biol Med 2013 Aug 155(5) 598-600



High-intensity Nd:YAG laser accelerates bone regeneration in calvarial defect models.
Kim K, Kim IS, Cho TH, Seo YK, Hwang SJ

New York Seoul Dental Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

High-power pulsed lasers have been recently regarded to be anabolic to bone, but in vivo evidence is still lacking. This study aimed to investigate the capacity of bone repair using a high-power, Q-switched, pulsed, neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser, using bilateral calvarial defect models having non-critical sized, 5 mm (rat) or 8 mm (rabbit) diameter. One of the bilateral defects, which were all filled with collagen sponge or left empty, was irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser once every 2 days for 2 weeks at a constant total fluence rate (344 J/cm2 ), output power (0.75 W), pulse repetition rate (15 pps) and wavelength (1064 nm) and examined for the laser effect. The same experimental scheme was designed using a rabbit calvarial defect model implanted with sponge, which was explored for the dose effect of output power at 0.75 and 3 W with the same quantities of the other parameters. New bone formation was evaluated by micro-computed tomography-based analysis and histological observation at 4 weeks after surgery. Laser irradiation significantly increased new bone formation by approximately 45%, not only in the sponge-filled defects of rats but also when the defects were left empty, compared to the non-irradiated group. Consistently, both doses of output power (0.75 and 3 W) enhanced new bone formation, but there was no significant difference between the two doses. This study is one of the first to demonstrate the beneficial effect of Nd:YAG lasers on the regeneration of bone defects which were left empty or filled with collagen sponge, suggesting its great potential in postoperative treatment targeting local bone healing. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2013 Nov 19



Effect of near-infrared light exposure on mitochondrial signaling in CC muscle cells.
Nguyen LM, Malamo AG, Larkin-Kaiser KA, Borsa PA, Adhihetty PJ

Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, United States. Electronic address:

Near-infrared (NIR) light is a complementary therapy used to treat musculoskeletal injuries but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Acute NIR light treatment (~800-950nm; 22.8J/cm2) induced a dose-dependent increase in mitochondrial signaling (AMPK, p38 MAPK) in differentiated muscle cells. Repeated NIR light exposure (4days) appeared to elevate oxidative stress and increase the upstream mitochondrial regulatory proteins AMPK (3.1-fold), p38 (2.8-fold), PGC-1alpha (19.7%), Sirt1 (26.8%), and reduced RIP140 (23.2%), but downstream mitochondrial regulation/content (Tfam, NRF-1, Sirt3, cytochrome c, ETC subunits) was unaltered. Our data indicates that NIR light alters mitochondrial biogenesis signaling and may represent a mechanistic link to the clinical benefits.

Mitochondrion 2013 Nov 15



Layer-specific modulation of neuronal excitability by 660-nm laser irradiation in mouse neocortex.
Kumazaki K, Mieda T, Kogure S, Kawai H

Department of Bioinformatics, Graduate School of Engineering, Soka University, 1-236 Tangi-machi, Hachioji, Tokyo, 192-8577, Japan.

It has been reported that laser light irradiation (LLI) could regulate neuronal activities in the forebrain, but little is known if and how LLI in the red wavelength range affects neuronal excitability. Here, we investigated the effects of a continuous diode laser at 660 nm on intrinsic membrane properties and excitability of presumed pyramidal neurons in the thalamocortical input layer (layer 3/4) and in layer 5 of mouse primary auditory cortex using the whole-cell patch-clamp recording technique. In layer 3/4 neurons, 660-nm laser irradiation (LLI-660) at 20 mW for 5 min gradually increased resting membrane potentials, which reached a plateau after irradiation. Concomitantly, LLI-660 decreased onset latency of first action potentials (spikes) without changing spike threshold or peak amplitude, but increased inter-spike interval of initial bursting spike doublets and their peak amplitude ratio. None of these changes was observed in layer 5 neurons. Instead, LLI-660 at 20 mW rapidly reduced spike width ~5 % within 1 min of irradiation onset. The magnitude of this reduction did not change during 5 or 10 min irradiation, and returned quickly to at least baseline levels after turning the LLI off. Decreasing laser power to 10 mW reduced spike width to a lesser extent, suggesting laser power dependence of this phenomenon. These data suggest that LLI-660 regulates different aspects of neuronal excitability in cortical neurons in a layer-dependent manner possibly by affecting different voltage-gated ion channels.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Nov 14



Regulation of Na /K -ATPase by neuron-specific transcription factor Sp4: implication in the tight coupling of energy production, neuronal activity and energy consumption in neurons.
Johar K, Priya A, Wong-Riley MT

Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology, and Anatomy, Medical College of Wisconsin, 8701 Watertown Plank Road, Milwaukee, WI, 53226, USA.

A major source of energy demand in neurons is the Na+ /K+ -ATPase pump that restores the ionic gradient across the plasma membrane subsequent to depolarizing neuronal activity. The energy comes primarily from mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, of which cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is a key enzyme. Recently, we found that all 13 subunits of COX are regulated by specificity (Sp) factors, and that the neuron-specific Sp4, but not Sp1 or Sp3, regulates the expression of key glutamatergic receptor subunits as well. The present study sought to test our hypothesis that Sp4 also regulates Na+ /K+ -ATPase subunit genes in neurons. By means of multiple approaches, including in silico analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter mutational analysis, over-expression, and RNA interference studies, we found that Sp4, with minor contributions from Sp1 and Sp3, functionally regulate the Atp1a1, Atp1a3, and Atp1b1 subunit genes of Na+ /K+ -ATPase in neurons. Transcripts of all three genes were up-regulated by depolarizing KCl stimulation and down-regulated by the impulse blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), indicating that their expression was activity-dependent. Silencing of Sp4 blocked the up-regulation of these genes induced by KCl, whereas over-expression of Sp4 rescued them from TTX-induced suppression. The effect of silencing or over-expressing Sp4 on primary neurons was much greater than those of Sp1 or Sp3. The binding sites of Sp factors on these genes are conserved among mice, rats and humans. Thus, Sp4 plays an important role in the transcriptional coupling of energy generation and energy consumption in neurons.

Eur J Neurosci 2013 Nov 12



Nanoparticle-emitted light attenuates amyloid-beta-induced superoxide and inflammation in astrocytes.
Bungart BL, Dong L, Sobek D, Sun GY, Yao G, Lee JC

Department of Biological Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the sixth leading cause of age-related death with no effective intervention yet available. Our previous studies have demonstrated the potential efficacy of Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) in AD cell models by mitigating amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta)-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. However, the penetration depth of light is still the major challenge for implementing LLLT in animal models and in the clinical settings. In this study, we present the potential of applying Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer to Quantum Dots (BRET-Qdots) as an alternative near infrared (NIR) light source for LLLT. Our results show that BRET-Qdot-emitted NIR suppresses Abeta-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in primary rat astrocytes. These data provide a proof of concept for a nanomedicine platform for LLLT.

Nanomedicine 2013 Nov 4



Phototherapy with artificial light suppresses dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in a mouse model.
Hiratsuka T, Inomata M, Goto S, Oyama Y, Nakano T, Chen CL, Shiraishi N, Noguchi T, Kitano S

Department of Gastroenterological and Pediatric Surgery, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Oita, Japan.

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Medical treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) requires chronic administration and causes side effects. Recently, anti-inflammatory effects of phototherapy were reported in animal models. The present study evaluated whether phototherapy improves dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in a mouse model of IBD. METHODS: Mice were divided into four equal groups: Control, DSS, DSS + light low (LL), and DSS + light high (LH) groups. Normal fluorescent light intensity in the Control and DSS groups was 200 lux. Artificial light intensities were as follows: DSS + LL group, 1000 lux; DSS + LH group, 2500 lux. After administering phototherapy for 7 days, we evaluated disease activity index (DAI), histological score, colon length/weight, serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) level, and serum and colonic cytokines in the mice. RESULTS: DAI and histological scores were significantly lower in the DSS + LL group than in the DSS group (both, P <0.05). Colon length and weight were significantly higher in the DSS + LL group than in the DSS group (both, P <0.05). Serum interleukin (IL)-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-17 in the DSS + LL group were significantly lower and serum and colonic IL-10 were significantly higher in the DSS + LL group than in the DSS group (all, P <0.05). Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) levels in the DSS + LH group were significantly increased compared with those in the DSS + LL and DSS groups. CONCLUSIONS: Artificial light phototherapy suppressed DSS-induced colitis in mice by suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and promotion of anti-inflammatory cytokines.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013 Nov 15



Evaluation of anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of low-level laser therapy on temporomandibular joint inflammation in rodents.
Barretto SR, de Melo GC, Dos Santos JC, de Oliveira MG, Pereira-Filho RN, Alves AV, Ribeiro MA, Lima-Verde IB, Quintans Junior LJ, de Albuquerque-Junior RL, Bonjardim LR

Tiradentes University, Av. Murilo Dantas, 300, Farolandia, CEP 49030-490, Aracaju/SE, Brazil. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the nociceptive behavioral as well as histomorphological aspects induced by injection of formalin and carrageenan into the rat temporomandibular joint. The 2.5% formalin injection (FRG group) induced behavioral responses characterized by rubbing the orofacial region and flinching the head quickly, which were quantified for 45min. The pretreatment with systemic administration of diclofenac sodium-DFN group (10mg/kg i.p.) as well as the irradiation with LLLT infrared (LST group, 780nm, 70mW, 30s, 2.1J, 52.5J/cm(2), GaAlAs) significantly reduced the formalin-induced nociceptive responses. The 1% carrageenan injection (CRG group) induced inflammatory responses over the time-course of the study (24h, and 3 and 7days) characterized by the presence of intense inflammatory infiltrate rich in neutrophils, scanty areas of liquefactive necrosis and intense interstitial edema, extensive hemorrhagic areas, and enlargement of the joint space on the region. The DFN and LST groups showed an intensity of inflammatory response that was significantly lower than in CRG group over the time-course of the study, especially in the LST group, which showed exuberant granulation tissue with intense vascularization, and deposition of newly formed collagen fibers (3 and 7days). It was concluded that the LLLT presented an anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory response on the inflammation induced in the temporomandibular joint of rodents.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2013 Dec 5 129 135-42



The effect of low-level laser irradiation on muscle tension and hardness compared among three wavelengths.
Yonezu T, Kogure S

Graduate School of Sports Science, Waseda University, Japan.

Background and Aims: It has been reported that low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) can influence muscle tissue by retarding attenuation of muscle tension. Since the efficacy of LLLI on the effects of muscle contraction remains unclear, we examined in an in vivo animal model whether LLLI affects both muscle tension and muscle hardness in a wavelength-dependent manner, using the rat gastrocnemius muscle. Material and Methods: Forty Sprague-Dawley adult rats were used. Under pentobarbital sodium anesthesia, their gastrocnemius muscle and tibial nerve were exteriorized. Diode LLLI systems delivering 3 wavelengths (405, 532, and 808 nm; 100 mW output) were used. Ten sets of tetanus (tetanic contractions) were delivered to the tibial nerve followed by a brief rest or LLLI for 15 s and an additional 7 sets of tetanus with an inter-stimulus interval of 5 min. The muscle tension and muscle hardness were measured with a tension transducer and hardness meter, respectively. Results: 405 nm LLLI did not influence either muscle tension or hardness. 532 nm LLLI significantly improved the maintenance of muscle tension compared with the 808 nm group (P<0.05). In contrast, 808 nm LLLI significantly improved the recovery from muscle hardness compared with the other groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: We conclude that LLLI has wavelength-dependent effects on the gastrocnemius muscle and LLLI at appropriate wavelengths and dosimetry offers potential in the treatment to relieve muscle tension or stiffness.

Laser Ther 2013 22(3) 201-7



Comparative analysis of two low-level laser doses on the expression of inflammatory mediators and on neutrophils and macrophages in acute joint inflammation.
Dos Santos SA, Alves AC, Leal-Junior EC, Albertini R, Vieira RD, Ligeiro AP, Junior JA, de Carvalho PD

Department of Physical Therapy, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Synovial membrane inflammation plays an important role in osteoarthritis (OA) pathophysiology. The synovial tissue of patients with initial OA is characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other mediators of joint injury. The study aims to evaluate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) at doses of 2 and 4 J on joint inflammation in rats induced by papain through histopathological analysis, differential counts of inflammatory cells; gene expression of IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-10; and TNF-alpha protein expression. Male Wistar rats (20) were randomly divided (5 animals each) into a negative control group, an inflammation injury positive control group, a 2-J LLLT group subjected to injury and treated with 2 J of LLLT, and a 4-J LLLT group subjected to injury and treated with 4 J of LLLT. The animals were subjected to joint inflammation (4 % papain solution) and treated with LLLT. On the day of euthanasia, articular lavage was collected and centrifuged. The supernatant was analyzed for TNF-alpha protein expression by ELISA and IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-10 mRNA by RT-PCR. The joint tissue was also examined histologically. ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc test was used for comparisons. All data were expressed as means +/- S.D. (p < 0.05). Both laser modalities were efficient in reducing cellular inflammation and decreasing the expression of IL-1beta and IL-6. However, the 2-J treatment led to more reduction in TNF-alpha than the 4-J treatment. A single application of LLLT with 2 J was more efficient in modulating inflammatory mediators and inflammatory cells.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Oct 31



Effects of laser and ozone therapies on bone healing in the calvarial defects.
Kazancioglu HO, Ezirganli S, Aydin MS

From the *Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry; and daggerDepartment of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey.

This study aims to analyze the effect of the low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and ozone therapy on the bone healing of critical size defect (CSD) in rat calvaria. A total of 30 Wistar male rats were used. A 5-mm-diameter trephine bur was used to create CSD on the right side of the parietal bone of each rat calvarium. Once the bone was excised, a synthetic biphasic calcium phosphate graft material was implanted to all the bone defect sites. The animals were randomly divided into 3 groups as follows: the control group (n = 10), which received no LLLT or ozone therapy; the LLLT group (n = 10), which received only LLLT (120 seconds, 3 times a week for 2 weeks); and the ozone therapy group (n = 10) (120 seconds, 3 times a week for 2 weeks). After 1 month, all the rats were killed, and the sections were examined to evaluate the presence of inflammatory infiltrate, connective tissue, and new bone formation areas. Histomorphometric analyses showed that in the LLLT and ozone groups, the new bone areas were significantly higher than in the control group (P < 0.05). In the LLLT group, higher new bone areas were found than in the ozone group (P < 0.05). This study demonstrated that both ozone and laser therapies had a positive effect on bone formation in rat calvarial defect, compared with the control group; however, ozone therapy was more effective than LLLT (808 nm; 0.1 W; 4 J/cm(2); 0.028 cm(2), continuous wave mode).

J Craniofac Surg 2013 Nov 24(6) 2141-6



Microfluidic approach for direct and uniform laser irradiation to study biochemical state changes on Jurkat-T cells.
Butler SJ, Lee DW, Burney CW, Wigle JC, Choi TY

University of North Texas, Department of Physics, 1155 Union Circle, #311427, Denton, Texas 76203.

We investigated the potential for using polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic devices in a biological assay to explore the cellular stress response (CSR) associated with hyperthermia induced by exposure to laser radiation. In vitro studies of laser-tissue interaction traditionally involved exposing a monolayer of cells. Given the heating-cooling dynamics of the cells and nutrient medium, this technique produces a characteristic “bulls-eye” temperature history that plagues downstream molecular analyses due to the nonuniform thermal experience of exposed cells. To circumvent this issue, we devised an approach to deliver single cells to the laser beam using a microfluidic channel, allowing homogeneous irradiation and collection of sufficient like-treated cells to measure changes in CSR after laser heating. To test this approach, we irradiated Jurkat-T cells with a 2-mum-wavelength laser in one branch of a 100-mum-wide bifurcated channel while unexposed control cells were simultaneously passing through the other, identical channel. Cell viability was measured using vital dyes, and expression of HSPA1A was measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The laser damage threshold was 25 +/- 2 J/cm2, and we found a twofold increase in expression at that exposure. This approach may be employed to examine transcriptome-wide/proteome changes and further comparative work across stressors and cell types.

J Biomed Opt 2013 Nov 1 18(11) 117004



Effect of low-level laser therapy (lambda660 nm) on angiogenesis in wound healing: a immunohistochemical study in a rodent model.
Colombo F, Neto Ade A, Sousa AP, Marchionni AM, Pinheiro AL, Reis SR

The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the angiogenesis on dorsal cutaneous wounds in a rodent model treated with lambda660 nm laser light. New vessel formation is a multistep process involving vessel sprouting, endothelial cell migration, proliferation and tube formation. Although several in vivo studies have shown that laser phototherapy influences tissue repair, a fully understanding of angiogenesis mechanisms are not yet known. Twenty-four young adult male Wistar rats weighing between 200 and 250 g were used. Under general anesthesia, one excisional wound was created on the dorsum of each animal and they were randomly distributed into two groups: one control and one treated with laser (lambda660 nm, 16 mW, 10 J/cm2). Each group was subdivided into three subgroups according to the animal death timing (2, 4 and 6 days). Laser irradiation started immediately after surgery and was repeated every other day during the experiment and marked with Sirius Red, specific for collagen, and immunomarked with anti-TGF-beta and anti-von Willebrand factor. Marked sections underwent histological analysis by light microscopy and the mean area of the wound of each animal was calculated and analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s test (alpha=0.05). Although at some death periods, collagen expression and number of blood vessels on irradiated animals were higher than in the control ones, no significant differences were found at any time in relation to TGF-beta expression (p>0.05). It was concluded that laser treatment (lambda660 nm) contributed to increase angiogenesis.

Braz Dent J 2013 24(4) 308-12



Infrared LED irradiation photobiomodulation of oxidative stress in human dental pulp cells.
Montoro LA, Turrioni AP, Basso FG, de Souza Costa CA, Hebling J

Department of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

AIM: To investigate the effect of infrared light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation on the oxidative stress induced in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). METHODOLOGY: Human dental pulp cells (HDPCs) were harvested from sound primary teeth that were near exfoliation. Cells were seeded (105 cells cm-2 ) using alpha-MEM supplemented with 10% FBS and after 24 h, were placed in contact with LPS (10 mug mL-1 of culture medium). Immediately afterwards, HDPCs were subjected to a single irradiation with an infrared LED (855 nm) delivering different doses of energy (0, 2, 4, 8, 15 or 30 J cm-2 ). For each dose, there was a control group without LPS application. Twenty-four hours after irradiation, groups were tested for nitric oxide (NO) quantification, cell viability (MTT assay) and qualitative assessment of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (alpha = 0.05). RESULTS: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced stress resulted in significant increase in NO production by HDPC without causing damage to cell respiratory metabolism. Irrespective of energy dose delivered, NO production was significantly reduced when LPS-stressed cells were irradiated with infrared LED (2 J cm-2 , P = 0.003; 95% CI = 5.84-27.71; 4 J cm-2 , P = 0.001; 95% CI = 7.52-26.39; 8 J cm-2 , P = 0.0195; 95% CI = -2.86-16.01; 15 J cm-2 , P = 0.0001; 95% CI = 12.10-30.96; 30 J cm-2 , P = 0.007; 95% CI = 5.84-24.71). The highest decrease in NO production was observed when 15 J cm-2 was delivered to cells. Infrared LED irradiation resulted in a decrease in ROS production, whilst HDPC metabolism was not significantly affected. CONCLUSION: Biomodulation of oxidative stress of HPDC can be achieved by irradiation with a single dose of infrared LED. Within the range investigated, 15 J cm-2 resulted in the least production of NO.

Int Endod J 2013 Nov 11



Irradiation with a low-level diode laser induces the developmental endothelial locus-1 gene and reduces proinflammatory cytokines in epithelial cells.
Fujimura T, Mitani A, Fukuda M, Mogi M, Osawa K, Takahashi S, Aino M, Iwamura Y, Miyajima S, Yamamoto H, Noguchi T

Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Aichi Gakuin University, 2-11 Suemori-dori, Chikusa-ku, 464-8651, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan.

We demonstrated previously that low-level diode laser irradiation with an indocyanine green-loaded nanosphere coated with chitosan (ICG-Nano/c) had an antimicrobial effect, and thus could be used for periodontal antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT). Since little is known about the effects of aPDT on periodontal tissue, we here investigated the effect of low-level laser irradiation, with and without ICG-Nano/c, on cultured epithelial cells. Human oral epithelial cells were irradiated in a repeated pulse mode (duty cycle, 10 %; pulse width, 100 ms; peak power output, 5 W). The expression of the developmental endothelial locus 1 (Del-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were evaluated in Ca9-22 cells stimulated by laser irradiation and Escherichia coli-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A wound healing assay was carried out on SCC-25 cells irradiated by diode laser with or without ICG-Nano/c. The mRNA expression of Del-1, which is known to have anti-inflammatory activity, was significantly upregulated by laser irradiation (p < 0.01). Concurrently, LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-8 expression was significantly suppressed in the LPS + laser group (p < 0.01). ICAM-1 expression was significantly higher in the LPS + laser group than in the LPS only or control groups. Finally, compared with the control, the migration of epithelial cells was significantly increased by diode laser irradiation with or without ICG-Nano/c. These results suggest that, in addition to its antimicrobial effect, low-level diode laser irradiation, with or without ICG-Nano/c, can suppress excessive inflammatory responses via a mechanism involving Del-1, and assists in wound healing.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Oct 3



Re-stability of dental implants following treatment of peri-implantitis.
Javed F, Hussain HA, Romanos GE

It is hypothesized that active treatment of peri-implantitis (PI) leads to re-stabilization of dental implants. The aim was to assess whether or not dental implants can re-stabilize following treatment of PI. To address the focused question, MEDLINE/PubMed and Google-Scholar databases were explored from 1977 up to and including August 2013. Any disagreements between the authors were resolved via discussion. Articles published only in English were included. Hand searching was also performed. Thirteen experimental studies were included. The treatment regimes adopted in these studies comprised of antibiotic therapy, guided bone regeneration (GBR), laser therapy, use of bone matrix proteins with membrane, conventional flap surgery and mechanical debridement. In four studies, GBR promoted new bone formation; whereas two studies showed photosensitization therapy (in combination with either mechanical debridement or GBR) to regenerate bone around peri-implant defects. Six studies reported that mechanical debridement in conjunction with antibiotic therapy promoted re-stability of dental implants. In one study, recombinant human bone matrix protein-2 with a collagen membrane helped promote re-stabilization of dental implants. New bone formation may occur to some extent around dental implants following treatment for PI; however, a “complete” re-stability may be difficult to achieve without GBR.

Interv Med Appl Sci 2013 Sep 5(3) 116-21



Reply to comments on: “Efficacy of low-level laser therapy in the management of orthodontic pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis”
He W, Li C, Zou S

Department of Orthodontics, Guangdong Provincial Stomatological Hospital, the Affiliated Stomatological Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangdong Provincial Stomatological Hospital, Guangzhou, China.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Nov 14



[Use of laser for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis induced by radiotherapy and chemotherapy of head and neck cancer.]
Munoz-Corcuera M, Gonzalez-Nieto A, Lopez-Pintor Munoz RM

Departamento de Medicina y Cirugia Bucofacial, Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Espana. Electronic address:

One of the complications of radiotherapy and chemotherapy is oral mucositis. Since the low energy laser is one of the most frequently recommended interventions by authors and international societies, the aim of this study is to review the scientific evidence on the use of lasers as a preventive and therapeutic in oral mucositis associated with treatment of cancer. We performed a literature search in PubMed and The Cochrane Collaboration Library, limiting the search to the last 20 years. We finally included 29 articles that contained 30 studies. Low energy laser phototherapy seems a promising intervention in both the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis associated with cancer treatment. Virtually all studies reviewed showed good results with no adverse effects and reductions in both incidence and severity of mucositis in all types of cancer treatments.

Med Clin (Barc) 2013 Nov 8



Topical Antimicrobials for Burn Infections – an Update.
Sevgi M, Toklu A, Vecchio D, Hamblin MR

BAR414, 40 Blossom Street, Boston MA,USA 02114.

The relentless rise in antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria and fungi, coupled with the high susceptibility of burn wounds to infection, and the difficulty of systemically administered antibiotics to reach damaged tissue, taken together have made the development of novel topical antimicrobials for burn infections a fertile area of innovation for researchers and companies. We previously covered the existing patent literature in this area in 2010, but the notable progress made since then, has highlighted the need for an update to bring the reader up to date on recent developments. New patents in the areas of topically applied antibiotics and agents that can potentiate the action of existing antibiotics may extend their useful lifetime. Developments have also been made in biofilm-disrupting agents. Antimicrobial peptides are nature’s way for many life forms to defend themselves against attack by pathogens. Silver has long been known to be a highly active antimicrobial but new inorganic metal derivatives based on bismuth, copper and gallium have emerged. Halogens such as chlorine and iodine can be delivered by novel technologies. A variety of topically applied antimicrobials include chitosan preparations, usnic acid, ceragenins and XF porphyrins. Natural product derived antimicrobials such as tannins and essential oils have also been studied. Novel techniques to deliver reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in situ have been developed. Light-mediated techniques include photodynamic therapy, ultraviolet irradiation, blue light, low-level laser therapy and titania photocatalysis. Passive immunotherapy employs antibodies against pathogens and their virulence factors. Finally an interesting new area uses therapeutic microorganisms such as phages, probiotic bacteria and protozoa to combat infections.

Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov 2013 Nov 12



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Mealnoma with second myxoid stomal changes after personally prolonged phototherapy

Phototherapy in the treatment of acne vulgaris

The action of visible polarized light on skin diseases

Pain Treatment

Antinflammatory effects of laser therapy in rheumatoid arthritis

Efficacy of polarized light in the treatment of chronic musculoskeletal neck and shoulder pain

Lateral epicondylitis tennis elbow

MF-26.D Stasinopolous Lateral eipcodlagia - Pilot study

MF-27 D. Stasiopolous Carpal Tunnel Sydrome - Open Clinical Trial

The role of physical therapy and physical modalities in pain management

The use of polychromatic polarized light BIOPTRON in physiotherapy


Postoperative rehabilitation in patients with peripheral never lesions

PubMed Pediatrics


Arch Gen Psych 55-890-896

Bright light improoves vitality and alleviates distress in healthy people

Bright light therapy of subsundromal seasonal affective disorder in the workplace morning vs afternoon exposure

Eastman SAD Archieves

Terman 1998 Archieves

Wound Healing

A conservative approach for deep dermal burn wounds using polarised-light therapy

A. Simic et al., Effect on wound healing after operation

A. Simic et al.,, NY 2001 Wound healing in patients after operation of stomach carcinoma

MF-03 S. Young, Marcrophage responseiveness to light therapy 1989

MF-04 P. Bolton marcophage responsiveness to light therapy 1992

MF-16 P Iordanou BLT in treatment of pressure ulcers 2002












Recommended Books

There are a number of books published on Low Level Laser Therapy, many of which are excellent. We particularly recommend the following which we can source and/or supply as required:

The New Laser Therapy Handbook Jan Tunér and Lars Hode (Reprinted 2010)

“Laser phototherapy has often been looked upon as an "alternative" medical modality. More than 2100 scientific references in this book are telling a different story.”

Laser Acupuncture: A PRACTICAL HANDBOOK Volkmar Kreisel and Michael Weber (2012)

" Combining the teachings of traditional Chinese medicine with the biophysics of modern high-tech phototherapy, the authors share their considerable knowledge of laser acupuncture and laser therapy here in compact easy-to-follow form. The practical section includes one hundred successful treatment concepts presented in detail. "

Laser Therapy and Laser Puncture: Treatment Tables Anja Füchtenbusch and Wolfgang Bringmann (2004)

"With these instruction programs you will quickly orient yourself to the effects and possibilities for using low level laser therapy and find a direct entry into its applications...More than 200 short sets of directions for the most frequent indications in the fields of traumatology, orthopedics, neurology, internal medicine, throat/nose/ears and dermatology ...[with] more than 40 detailed treatment instructions..."

Laser Therapy and Acupuncture on Horses: Treatment Protocols Anja Füchtenbusch and Peter Rosin (Revised edition 2010)

"Laser therapy and acupuncture are energetic treatment methods which complement each other well and are also utilised successfully in equine therapy today. This user's handbook intends to enable rapid and practical entry into this field. "

Laser Theory and Laser Puncture in Dogs and Cats, Treatment Plans Anja Füchtenbusch and Peter Rosin (2010)

“…intended to provide a rapid and practical introduction to laser therapy. In addition to a berief outline of how it works, tried and tested treatment plans for the most important indications in dogs and cats are set out in a compact, easily understood and clear manner"

A Practitioner's Guide to Laser Therapy and Musculo-Skeletal Injuries Kerry G Tume and Sean Tume

"The book is basically a guide to disorders and their treatments with Low Level Laser... Actual treatment parameters [are] included, covering a wide range of problems. This will allow the novice user to apply LLLT with confidence and predictable results... "

Laser Therapy: A Clinical Manual Jennifer A Blahnik and David W Rindge (2003)

"This manual is divided into two parts. The first portion explains how lasers work...The second portion presents specific clinical approaches for more than forty conditions with illustrations, point selection, dosage and techniques. "

Pulse Controlled Laser Acupuncture Concept in Horses and Dogs Uwe Petermann (2007)

"I learned a lot from this book. There is good practical information, good theoretical information and scientific explanations all in about 260 pages". Linda Boggie, DVM, IVAS Past President 2006-08

Acupuncturists Guide to Laser Therapy and Musculo-Skeletal Injuries Kerry G Tume

"I sincerely recommend this book to all Clinicians and Health Professionals and I feel that the knowledge contained within it is both extensive and usable, particularly as it is based on many years of both theoretical and practical experience of a father and son team.... " Dr Donald K Bartram BDS Bachelor Acupuncture

Light and Laser Therapy: Clinical Procedures Curtis Turchin (2007)

"A wonderful resource for infrared and laser in the clinic with excellent simplified scientific background information and specific clinical examples. Truly helpful." Karen Woodbeck MS, PT, OCS, ATC

Key Journals

Laser therapy studies are published in a host of discipline- and application- related journals, but the following are specialist laser medicine journals :

Journal of Photochemistry & Photobiology

Lasers in Surgery & Medicine

Lasers in Medical Science

Photomedicine & Laser Surgery

SPIE journals and proceedings

Journal of Clinical Laser Medicine & Surgery (discontinued)


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